Clay-Asphaltene Interaction During Hybrid Solvent-Steam Injection Into Bitumen Reservoirs
- R. Coelho (Texas A&M University) | C. Ovalles (Chevron ETC) | B. Hascakir (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, 7-9 June, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2016. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.7 Reserves Evaluation, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.3.3 Aspaltenes, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors
- Clays, Solvent-Steam, Asphaltenes, Propane, Steam
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 202 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
The goal of solvent-steam-flooding is enhancing bitumen recovery by the simultaneous development of miscibility and reduction of oil viscosity. Though this strategy reduces greenhouse gas emissions, solvents are expensive. Additionally, bitumen recovery performance is affected by oil/solvent/clay/asphaltene interactions on pore-scale. The solvent dose and type must be optimized to maximize recovery, while minimizing environmental impacts and operational costs. To investigate the performance of solvent-steam processes, six core flooding experiments were conducted on a Canadian bitumen sample with 8.8°API and 54,000 cP. Propane-steam flooding was tested and compared to steam-flooding. The effect of reservoir clays is studied by repeating experiments without clay addition. Three propane flowrates were tested to examine the impact of solvent dosages. After the experiments, asphaltene, clay, viscosity, and water content in produced oil were measured. Propane-steam flooding increased recovery factors, accelerated production, and had higher quality oil than steam-flooding. The lowest propane flowrate (1:9 vol/vol) improved oil recovery by 23%, indicating that higher solvent concentration may not be needed. This work reveals that bitumen microscopic displacement efficiency is enhanced by up to 88% with the addition of solvent to steam flooding. It is proposed that pore-scale interactions, solvent flowrate, and clays also highly influence produced oil quality and oil recovery rates.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||8|
ASTM. 2011. ASTM D2007-11: Standard Test Method for Characteristic Groups in Rubber Extender and Processing Oils and Other Petroleum-Derived Oils by the Clay-Gel Absorption Chromatographic Method. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/D2007-11.
Coelho, R. and Hascakir, B. 2015. The Pore-Scale Description of Carbon Dioxide Storage into High Asphaltene Content Reservoirs. Presented at the Carbon Management Technology Conference, 17-19 November, Sugar Land, Texas, USA. CMTC-439523-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.7122/439523-MS.
Das, S. K., and Butler, R. M. 1994. Effect of Asphaltene Deposition on the Vapex Process: A Preliminary Investigation Using a Hele-Shaw Cell. J Can Pet Technol 33 (6): 39–45. PETSOC-94-06-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94-06-06.
Ezeuko, C. C., Wang, J., and Gates, I. D. 2013. Investigation of Emulsion Flow in Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. SPE J 18 (3): 440–447. SPE-157830-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/157830-PA.
Farouq Ali, S. M. and Abad, B. 1976. Bitumen Recovery from Oil Sands, Using Solvents in Conjunction with Steam. J Can Pet Technol 15 (3): 80–90. PETSOC-76-03-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/76-03-11.
Farouq Ali, S. M. and Snyder, S. G. 1973. Miscible Thermal Methods Applied to a Two-Dimensional, Vertical Tar Sand Pack, with Restricted Fluid Entry. J Can Pet Technol 12 (4): 20–26. PETSOC- 73-04-01. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73-04-01.
Hamm, R.A. and Ong, T.S. 1995. Enhanced Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: A New Horizontal Well Recovery Process for Peace River, Canada. J Can Pet Technol 34 (4): 33–40. PETSOC-95-04-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95-04-03.
Hernandez, O. E. and Farouq Ali, S. M. 1972. Oil Recovery from Athabasca Tar Sand by Miscible - Thermal Methods. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, May 16-19, Calgary, Alberta. PETSOC-7249. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7249.
Kar, T. and Hascakir, B. 2015. The Role of Resins, Asphaltenes and Water in Water-Oil Emulsion Breaking with Microwave Heating. Energy & Fuels 29 (6): 3684–3690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00662.
Kar, T., Mukhametshina, A., Unal, Y., and Hascakir, B. 2015. The Effect of Clay Type on Steam-Assisted- Gravity-Drainage Performance. J Can Pet Technol 54 (6): 412–423. SPE-173795-PA http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173795-PA.
Kokal, S. L. 2005. Crude Oil Emulsions: A State-Of-The-Art Review. SPE Prod Facil 20 (1): 5–13. SPE-77497-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77497-PA.
Leontaritis, K., Amaefule J., and Charles, R.E. 1994. A Systematic Approach for the Prevention and Treatment of Formation Damage Caused by Asphaltene Deposition. SPE Prod Facil 9 (3): 157164. SPE-23810-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23810-PA.
Mitchell, D.L. and Speight, J.G. 1973. The Solubility of Asphaltenes in Hydrocarbon Solvents. Fuel 52 (2): 149–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(73)90040-9.
Mohammadzadeh, O., Rezaei, N., and Chatzis, I. 2010. Pore-Level Investigation of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Recovery Using Solvent-Aided Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SA-SAGD) Process. Energy & Fuels 24 (12): 6327–6345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef100621s.
Mukhametshina, A., Kar, T. and Hascakir, B. 2015. Asphaltene Precipitation during Bitumen Extraction with Expanding-Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: Effects on Pore-Scale Displacement. SPE J. Preprint. SPE-170013-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170013-PA.
Nasr, T. N., Prowse, D. R., and Frauenfeld, T. 1987. The Use of Flue Gas with Steam in Bitumen Recovery from Oil Sands. J Can Pet Technol 26 (3): 62–69. PETSOC-87-03-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87-03-06.
Neasham, J. W. 1977. The Morphology of Dispersed Clay in Sandstone Reservoirs and Its Effect on Sandstone Shaliness, Pore Space and Fluid Flow Properties. Presented at the SPE Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, 9-12 October, Denver, Colorado. SPE-6858-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6858-MS.
Ovalles, C., Rogel, E., Alboudwarej, H., Inouye, A., Benson, I. P., Vaca, P. 2005. "Physical and Numerical Simulations of Subsurface Upgrading using Solvent Deasphalting in a Heavy Crude Oil Reservoir", SPE 174412, presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 9-11 June.
Redford, D. A. and McKay, A. S. 1980. Hydrocarbon-Steam Processes for Recovery of Bitumen from Oil Sands. Presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, 20-23 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma. SPE-8823-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8823-MS.
Redford, D. A. 1982. The Use of Solvents and Gases with Steam in the Recovery of Bitumen from Oil Sands. J Can Pet Technol 21 (5): 45–53. PETSOC-82-01-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/82-01-03.
Rivero, J. A. and Mamora, D. D. 2005. Production Acceleration and Injectivity Enhancement Using Steam-Propane Injection for Hamaca Extra-Heavy Oil. J Can Pet Technol 44 (2): 50–57. PETS0C-05-02-05. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/05-02-05.
Smith, D. G., Hubbard, S. M., Leckie, D. A. and Fustic, M. 2009. Counter Point Bar Deposits: Lithofacies and Reservoir Significance in the Meandering Modern Peace River and Ancient McMurray Formation, Alberta, Canada. Sedimentology 56 (6): 1655–1669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2009.01050.x.