Effect of Heterogeneity on Propagation, Placement, and Conformance Control of Preformed Particle Gel Treatment in Fractures
- Abdulmhsin Imqam (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Ze Wang (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Baojun Bai (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mojdeh Delshad (The University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, 11-13 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2016. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.1.3 Completion Equipment, 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design
- Gel Treatment, Conformance Control, Gel plugging performance to water flow, Fracture heterogeneity, Preformed Particle Gel Injection and Placement
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 337 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
Preformed particle gels (PPG) have been successfully applied as a plugging agent to solve the conformance problem in fractured reservoirs. They are injected to plug fractures and then divert displacing fluid into poorly swept zones and areas. However, PPG propagation and plugging mechanisms through open fractures have not been studied thoroughly. This paper investigated the influence of some factors (particle size, brine concentration, heterogeneity, injection flow rate, and brine salinity) on gel injectivity and plugging performance for water flow through opening fractures. Five-foot tubes were used to mimic opening fractures. Three models were designed to gain understanding on how fracture geometry and PPG properties affect gel injection and plugging efficiency, including (1) single fracture with uniform fracture width, (2) single fracture with different widths, and (3) two parallel fractures with different width ratios between each other. Results from single uniform fracture experiments showed that PPG injection pressure was more sensitive to gel strength than gel particle size. When large PPG size and high gel strength were used, high injection pressure and large injection pore volume were required for PPG and brine to reach fracture outlets. Results from single heterogeneous fracture model experiments showed PPG injection pressure increased as the fracture heterogeneity in sections increased. Particle gel accumulated at the choke point within each fracture and caused injection pressure to increase accordingly. Furthermore, results showed that having a lower salinity within a fracture, which was less than the brine salinity that was used to prepare PPG, would improve the PPG plugging efficiency for water flow. Parallel fracture models results showed that when weak PPG was used, a large volume of PPG flowed into a large fracture width and a small portion of the gel particle volume flowed into small fracture width. However, with increased gel strength and fracture width ratio, PPG only flowed through larger fracture widths. This paper demonstrates important impact elements of gel propagation and water flow for different opening fracture situations.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||23|
Bai, B., Liu, Y., Coste, J.-P., and Li, L. 2007. Preformed Particle Gel for Conformance Control: Transport Mechanism through Porous Media. SPE Res Eval & Eng. 10 (2): 176-184. SPE-89468-PA. Doi: 10.2118/89468-PA.
Ganguly, S., Willhite, G.P., Green, D.W., and McCool, C.S. 2001. The Effect of Fluid Leak off on Gel Placement and Gel Stability in Fractures. Paper SPE 64987 presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 13-16 February. DOI: 10.2118/64987-MS.
Imqam, A., Bai, B., Xiong, C., Wei, M., Delshad, M., Sepehrnoori, K. 2014. Characterizations of Disproportionate Permeability Reduction of Particle Gels through Fractures. Paper SPE 171531 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition held in Adelaide, Australia, 14-16 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/171531-MS
Imqam, A., Bai, B. 2015a. Optimizing the strength and size of preformed particle gels for better conformance control treatment. Fuel Journal; 148: 178–185. http://dx.doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2015.01.022.
Imqam, A., Goudarzi, A., Delshad, M., Bai, B. 2015b. Development a Mechanistic Numerical Simulator for Preformed Particle Gel Applications in Non-Cross Flow Heterogeneous Reservoirs. Paper SPE 175058 presented to the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in Houston, Texas, USA, 28-30 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/175058-MS.
Imqam, A., Bai, B., Al-Ramadan, M.et al. 2015c. Preformed Particle Gel Extrusion through Open Conduits during Conformance Control Treatments. SPE Journal. 20 (5): 1,083-1,093. SPE-169107-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169107-PA.
Imqam, A., Bai, B., Wei, M. 2015d. Combined Conformance Treatment with Mobility Control Improves Oil Sweep Efficiency in Non-Cross Flow Heterogeneous Reservoirs. Paper SPE 176728 presented at SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference held in Moscow, Russia. 26-28 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/176728-MS.
Imqam, A, Bai, B, Delshad, M. 2015e. Preformed Particle Gel Propagation through Super-K Permeability and its Resistance to Water Flow during Conformance Control. Paper SPE 176429 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition held in Bali, Indonesia, 20-22 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/176429-MS.
Imqam, A., Bai, B, Elue, H., Muhammed, F. 2016. Use of Hydrochloric Acid to Remove Filter Cake Damage from Preformed Particle Gel during Conformance Control Treatments. SPE 172352-PA. SPE-Production & Optimization Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/172352-PA.
Liu, Jin., and Seright, R.S. 2000. Rheology of Gels Used For Conformance Control in Fractures. Paper SPE 59318 presented at Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 3-5 April. DOI: 10.2118/59318-MS.
McCool, C.S., Li, X., and Willhite, G.P. 2009. Flow of a Polyacrylamide/Chromium Acetate System in a Long Conduit. SPE Journal 14(1): 54-66. SPE 106059-PA. DOI: 10.2118/106059-PA.
Seright, R.S. 1999. Mechanism for Gel Propagation through Fractures. Paper SPE 55628 presented at the SPE Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting, Gillette, Wyoming, 15-18 May. DOI: 10.2118/55628-MS.
Trans., AIME, 299. SPE-25855-PA. DOI: 10.2118/25855-PA.
Seright, R.S. 1997. Use of Preformed Gels for Conformance Control in Fractured Systems. SPE production & facilities 12 (1): 59-65. SPE- 35351-PA. DOI: 10.2118/35351-PA.
Seright, R.S. 2001. Gel Propagation through Fractures. SPEPF 16(4): 225-231. SPE -PA. DOI: 10.2118/74602-PA.
Sydansk, R.D., Xiong, Y., Al-Dhafeeri, A., Schrader, R., and Seright, R.S. 2005. Characterization of Partially Formed Polymer Gels for Application to Fractured Production Wells for Water-Shutoff Purposes. SPE Prod & Fac 20 (3): 240-249. SPE-89401-PA. DOI: 10.2118/89401-PA.
Wang, Y. and Seright, R.S. 2006. Correlating Gel Rheology with Behavior during Extrusion through Fractures. Paper SPE 99462 presented at SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 22-26 April. DOI: 10.2118/99462-MS.
Wilton, R., and Asghari, K. 2007. Improving Gel Performance in Fractures: Chromium Pre-Flush and Overload. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 46(2): DOI: 10.2118/07-02-04.
Zhang, H., and Bai, B. 2011. Preformed Particle Gel Transport through Open Fracture and its Effect on Water Flow. SPE Journal 16(2): 388400. SPE-129908-PA. DOI: 10.2118/129908-PA.