Radial and Linear Polymer Flow - Influence on Injectivity
- T. Skauge (CIPR Uni Research) | A. Skauge (CIPR Uni Research) | I. C. Salmo (CIPR Uni Research) | P. A. Ormehaug (CIPR Uni Research) | N. Al-Azri (PDO) | L. M. Wassing (Shell Global Solutions International BV) | G. Glasbergen (Shell Global Solutions International BV) | J. N. Van Wunnik (Shell Global Solutions International BV) | S. K. Masalmeh (Shell Global Solutions International BV)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, 11-13 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2016. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 7.2 Risk Management and Decision-Making, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 7 Management and Information, 5.3.6 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 5.5.8 History Matching, 7.2.1 Risk, Uncertainty and Risk Assessment, 1.6.10 Coring, Fishing, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 3 Production and Well Operations
- radial flow, Polymer, in-situ rheology, Injectivity, simulation
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Polymer injectivity is a critical parameter for implementation of polymer flood projects. An improved understanding of polymer injectivity is important in order to facilitate an increase in polymer EOR implementation. Typically, injectivity studies are performed using linear core floods. Here we demonstrate that polymer flow in radial and linear models may be significantly different and discuss the concept in theoretical and experimental terms.
Linear core floods using partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides (HPAM) were performed at various rates to determine in-situ viscosity and polymer injectivity. Radial polymer floods were performed on Bentheimer discs (30 cm diameter, 2-3 cm thickness) with pressure taps distributed between a central injector and the perimeter production well. The in-situ rheological data are also compared to bulk rheology. The experimental set up allowed a detailed analysis of pressure changes from well injection to production line in the radial models and using internal pressure taps in linear cores.
Linear core floods show degradation of polymer at high flow rates and a severe degree of shear thickening leading to presumably high injection pressures. This is in agreement with current literature. However, the radial injectivity experiments show a significant reduction in differential pressure compared to the linear core floods. Onset of shear thickening occurs at significantly higher flow velocities than for linear core floods. These data confirm that polymer flow is significantly different in linear and radial flow. This is partly explained by the fact that linear floods are being performed at steady state conditions, while radial injections go through transient (unsteady state) and semi-transient pressure regimes.
History matching of polymer injectivity was performed for radial injection experiments. Differences in polymer injectivity are discussed in the framework of theoretical and experimental considerations. The results may have impact on evaluation of polymer flood projects as polymer injectivity is a key risk factor for implementation.
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