Design of a Robust ASP Formulation for Clay Rich and Moderate Permeability Sandstone Reservoir: From Laboratory to Single Well Chemical Tracer Test in the Field
- Neeraj Rohilla (TIORCO, a Nalco Champion Company) | Ravi Ravikiran (Stepan Company) | Charlie T. Carlisle (Chemical Tracers Inc.) | Nick Jones (University of Wyoming) | Marron B. Davis (Sunshine Valley Petroleum Corporation) | Kenneth B. H. Finch (TIORCO, a Nalco Champion Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, 11-13 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2016. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.5 Tracers, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 7 Management and Information, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 2 Well completion, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 5.6 Formation Evaluation & Management, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 1.6.10 Coring, Fishing, 3 Production and Well Operations, 7.2.1 Risk, Uncertainty and Risk Assessment, 7.2 Risk Management and Decision-Making, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation, 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing
- Single well chemical tracer test, Adsorption mitigation, Surfactants, Chemical enhanced oil recovery, Clay-rich sandstone
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 209 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
Sandstone reservoirs containing significant amount of clays (30-40 wt%) with moderate permeability (20-50 mD) provide a unique challenge to surfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. A critical risk factor for these types of reservoirs is adsorption of surfactants due to greater surface area attributed to clays. Clays also have high cation exchange capacity (CEC) and can release significant amounts of di-valents that lead to increased retention of the surfactant. These factors could adversely affect the economics of a flood.
We present a case study where a robust formulation was designed and tested in lab/field for a reservoir located in Wyoming, USA and contains up to 35-40 wt% clays (predominately Kaolinite and Illite). The residual oil saturation is high (Sor=0.4) while the permeability of the formation is between 20-50 mD. The reservoir has been waterflooded historically with low salinity water which has led to formation permeability damage. Due to high levels of clays, adsorption of the surfactant on the rock surface was determined to be between 3-4 mg/g rock by static adsorption tests.
This publication demonstrates how the following challenges have been successfully addressed in the lab as well as in the field in the form of single well chemical tracer test (SWCTT).
Designed a robust alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation that showed ultra-low interfacial tension (IFT) values and aqueous solubility remains soluble in the aqueous solution over a broad range of salinity.
Mitigated surfactant adsorption issues to make the cEOR solution economic. A sacrificial agent was identified that acted synergistically with alkali and also did not alter the optimum salinity of the formulation.
Performed restored state core analysis using the available damaged core material. The main challenge being restoration of the coreplugs to current reservoir conditions for coreflood experiment without causing additional formation damage due to injection of low salinity formation brine.
Designed a flood that utilized a pre-flush to provide a favorable salinity gradient and to inject sacrificial agent ahead of the surfactant front.
Performed polymer screening to select right molecular weight of polymer so that the right balance of mobility control and injectivity in the reservoir can be obtained.
|File Size||5 MB||Number of Pages||23|
Austad, T. 1993. A Review of Retention Mechanisms of Ethoxylated Sulfonates in Reservoir Cores. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25174-MS
Bai, B., & Grigg, R. B. 2005. Kinetics and Equilibria of Calcium Lignosulfonate Adsorption and Desorption onto Limestone. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93098-MS
Cuiec, L. 1984. Rock/Crude-Oil Interactions and Wettability: An Attempt to Understand Their Interrelation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13211-MS
Cuiec, L., Longeron, D., & Pacsirszky, J. 1979. On The Necessity Of Respecting Reservoir Conditions In Laboratory Displacement Studies. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7785-MS
Deans, H. A., & Carlisle, C. T. 1986. Single-Well Tracer Test in Complex Pore Systems. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14886-MS
Gogarty, W. B., Meabon, H. P., & Milton, H. W. 1970. Mobility Control Design for Miscible-Type Waterfloods Using Micellar Solutions. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1847-E-PA
Griffith, T. D. 1978. Application of the Ion Exchange Process to Reservoir Preflushes. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7587-MS
Healy, R. N., & Reed, R. L. 1974. Physsicochemical Aspects of Microemulsion Flooding. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4583-PA
Hirasaki, G. J. 1982. Interpretation of the Change in Optimal Salinity with Overall Surfactant Concentration. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10063-PA
Hirasaki, G. J., & Pope, G. A. 1974. Analysis of Factors Influencing Mobility and Adsorption in the Flow of Polymer Solution through Porous Media. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4026-PA
Hirasaki, G. J., Rohan, J. A., Dubey, S. T., & Niko, H. 1990. Wettability Evaluation During Restored-State Core Analysis. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20506-MS
Hirasaki, G. J., van Domselaar, H. R., & Nelson, R. C. 1983. Evaluation of the Salinity Gradient Concept in Surfactant Flooding. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8825-PA
Hirasaki, G., Miller, C. A., & Puerto, M. 2011. Recent Advances in Surfactant EOR. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115386-PA
Jones, N., Chopping, C. & Yin, P. 2013. Core evaluation and clay analysis of the Newcastle Sandstone, Osage Wyoming. Prepared for Osage Partners, LLC http://www.uwyo.edu/eori/_files/clayanalysisreport.pdf (accessed 21 January, 2016)
Liu, S., Zhang, D., Yan, W., Puerto, M., Hirasaki, G. J., & Miller, C. A. 2008. Favorable Attributes of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99744-PA
Lopez-Salinas, J. L., Miller, C. A., Koh Yoo, K. H., & Puerto, M. 2009. Viscometer for Opaque, Sealed Microemulsion Samples. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121575-MS
Osterloh, W. T., & Jante, M. J. 1992. Surfactant-Polymer Flooding With Anionic PO/EO Surfactant Microemulsions Containing Polyethylene Glycol Additives. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24151-MS
Shamsijazeyi, H., Hirasaki, G., & Verduzco, R. 2013. Sacrificial Agent for Reducing Adsorption of Anionic Surfactants. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164061-MS
Sheng, J. J. 2013. A Comprehensive Review of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) Flooding. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165358-MS
Somasundaran, P., & Hanna, H. S. 1979. Adsorption of Sulfonates on Reservoir Rocks. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7059-PA
Stegemeier, G. L. 1974. Relationship of Trapped Oil Saturation to Petrophysical Properties of Porous Media. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4754-M
Taber, J. J. 1969. Dynamic and Static Forces Required To Remove a Discontinuous Oil Phase from Porous Media Containing Both Oil and Water. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2098-PA
Tomich, J. F., Dalton, R. L., Deans, H. A., & Shallenberger, L. K. 1973. Single-Well Tracer Method to Measure Residual Oil Saturation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3792-PA