Laboratory Study on Using Produced Water in High pH Borate Gels Used in Hydraulic Fracturing
- Ahmed M. Elsarawy (Texas A&M University) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University) | Kay E. Cawiezel (BP America)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, 11-13 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2016. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2 Well completion, 1.8 Formation Damage, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 4.3.4 Scale, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing
- Reuse, hydraulic fracturing, fracturing fluid, produced water, salts
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 241 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
Fracturing fluids are commonly formulated with fresh water to ensure reliable rheology. However, fresh water is becoming more costly, and in some areas, it is difficult to obtain. Therefore, using produced water in hydraulic fracturing has received increased attention in the last few years. A major challenge, however, is its high total dissolved solids (TDS) content, which could cause formation damage and negatively affect fracturing fluid rheology. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using produced water to formulate crosslinked-gel-based fracturing fluid. This paper focuses on the compatibility of water with the fracturing fluid system and the effect of salts on the fluid rheology.
Produced water samples were analyzed to determine different ion concentrations. Solutions of synthetic water with different amounts of salts were prepared. The fracturing fluid system consisted of natural guar polymer, borate-based crosslinker, biocide, surfactant, clay controller, scale inhibitor, and pH buffer. Compatibility tests of the fluid system were conducted at different cation concentrations. Apparent viscosity of the fracturing fluid was measured using a high-pressure high-temperature rotational rheometer. All rheology tests were conducted at a temperature of 180°F and were conducted according to API 13m procedure with a three-hour test duration. Fluid breaking test was also performed to ensure high fracture and proppant pack conductivity.
Produced water analysis showed a TDS content of 125,000 ppm, including Na, Ca, K, and Mg ion concentrations of 36,000, 10,500, 1,700, and 700 ppm, respectively. Results indicated the potential of produced water to cause formation damage. Therefore, produced water was diluted with fresh water and directly used to formulate the fracturing fluid. Divalent cations were found to be the main source of precipitation, and the reduced amounts of each ion were determined to prevent precipitation. The separate and combined effects of Na, K, Ca, and Mg ions on the viscosity of the fracturing fluid were also studied. Fluid viscosity was found to be significantly affected by the concentrations of divalent cations regardless of the concentrations of monovalent cations. Monovalent cations reduced the viscosity of fracturing fluid only in the absence of divalent cations, and showed no effect in the presence of Ca and Mg ions. Water with reduced concentrations of monovalent and divalent cations showed the most suitable environment for polymer hydration and crosslinking.
This paper contributes to the understanding of the main factors that enable the use of produced water for hydraulic fracturing operations. Maximizing the use of produced water could reduce its disposal costs, mitigate environmental impacts, and solve fresh water acquisition challenges.
|File Size||4 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Almond, S. W. 1982. Factors Affecting Gelling Agent Residue under Low Temperature Conditions. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 24-25 March. SPE-10658-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10658-MS.
Al-Muntasheri, G. A. 2014. A Critical Review of Hydraulic-Fracturing Fluids for Moderate- to Ultralow-Permeability Formations over the Last Decade. SPE Production & Operations 29 (04): 243-260. SPE-169552-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169552-PA
Das, P., Konale, S., and Kothamasu, R. 2014. Effect of Salt Concentration on Base-gel Viscosity of Different Polymers used in Stimulation Fluid Systems. Presented at the SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 25-27 February. SPE-167786-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167786-MS.
Fedorov, A., Carrasquilla, J., and Cox, A., 2014. Avoiding Damage Associated to Produced Water Use in Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26-28 February. SPE-168193-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168193-MS.
Fedorov, A. V., Fu, D., Mullen, K.. 2010. Efficient Hydraulic Fracturing Treatments in Western Siberia Using Produced Formation Water. Presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, Russia, 26-28 October. SPE-131729-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131729-MS.
Gleick, P. H. 1994. Water and Energy. Annu Rev Energy Environ 19: 267-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.eg.19.110194.001411.
Haghshenaz, A. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2014. Effect of Dissolved Solids on Reuse of Produced Water at High Temperature in Hydraulic Fracturing Jobs. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 21:316–325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2014.08.013.
Harris, P. C. 1993. Chemistry and Rheology of Borate-Crosslinked Fluids at Temperatures to 300° F. J Pet Technol 45 (03): 264-269. SPE-24339-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24339-PA
Huang, F., Gundewar, R., Steed, D., . 2005. Feasibility of Using Produced Water for Crosslinked Gel-Based Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 16-19 April. SPE-94320-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94320-MS.
Jennings, A.R. 1996. Fracturing Fluids - Then and Now. J Pet Technol 48 (07): 604-610. SPE-36166-JPT. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36166-JPT.
Kakadjian, S., Thompson, J., and Torres, R. 2015. Fracturing Fluid from Produced Water. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1-5 March. SPE-173602-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173602-MS.
Kakadjian, S., Thompson, J. E., Torres, R.. 2013. Stable Fracturing Fluids from Produced Waste Water. Presented at the SPE Kuwait Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 8-10 October. SPE-167275-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167275-MS.
LeBas, R., Lord, P., Luna, D.. 2013. Development and Use of High-TDS Recycled Produced Water for Crosslinked-Gel-Based Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 4-6 February. SPE-163824-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163824-MS.
Li, L., Eliseeva, K., Eliseev, V.. 2009. Well Treatment Fluids Prepared with Oilfield Produced Water. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4-7 October. SPE-124212-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124212-MS.
Li, L., Qu, Q., Sun, H.. 2015. How Extremely High-TDS Produced Water Compositions Affect Selection of Fracturing Fluid Additives. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 13-15 April. SPE-173746-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173746-MS.
Montgomery, C. 2013. Fracturing Fluid Components. Chapter 2. Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/56192.
Parker, M. A., Vitthal, S., Rahimi, A.. 1994. Hydraulic Fracturing of High-Permeability Formations To Overcome Damage. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 7-10 February. SPE-27378-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27378-MS.
Puder, M. G. and Veil, J. A. 2007. Options, Methods, and Costs for Offsite Commercial Disposal of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Wastes. SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction 2 (04): 1-5. SPE-105178-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/105178-PA.
Smith, M. B. and Hannah, R. 1996. High-Permeability Fracturing: The Evolution of a Technology. J Pet Technol 48 (07): 628-633. SPE-27984-JPT. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27984-JPT.
Sun, H., Li, L., Mayor, J.. 2015. Study on Abnormal Viscosity Development in High-TDS Produced Water. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 13-15 April. SPE-173784-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173784-MS.