The Catalytic Effect of Clay on In-Situ Combustion Performance
- M. L. Kozlowski (Texas A&M University) | A. Punase (Texas A&M University) | H. A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University) | B. Hascakir (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, 18-20 November, Quito, Ecuador
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2015. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 2 Well completion, 2.2 Completion Installation and Operations, 4.3.3 Aspaltenes, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
- SARA fractions, Catalitic Effect of Clay, In-situ combustion, X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT)
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 271 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
The in-situ combustion (ISC) is highly effective thermal enhanced oil recovery process in which high displacement efficiencies can be accomplished. While several physical and chemical factors affect the ISC performance, there is a little knowledge about how each parameter changes the ISC fate. In this study, we investigate the catalytic effect of clay on different crude oil types.
Six one-dimensional combustion tube experiments were conducted on three different crude oil samples; one from Mexico and two from Alberta, Canada. The combustion behavior of each crude oil sample was tested with two combustion runs; by preparing reservoir rock with only sand (E1, E3, and E5) and by preparing reservoir rock with 3 wt% clay and 97 wt% sand mixture (E2, E4, E6). The combustion characteristics were monitored with temperature profiles, produced gas compositions, and produced liquid yields. The level of in-situ oil upgrading were determined by comparing the viscosities of produced oil samples with the original ones.
The results showed that the catalytic effect of the clay controls the combustion front propagation, the fuel formation, and the produced oil quality. Clays visualized on postmortem samples in the shape of lumps indicate that clay alteration occured at elevated temperature due to interaction of clay with crude oil and due to thermal decomposition of clay. It was observed that the lump formation was associated with mainly saturates and asphaltene contents of initial oil and asphaltene-clay interaction during fuel formation.
Our results support that the clay presence in reservoir rock had an impact on ISC performance. However, this impact did not have a linear trend and the response of the catalytic effect of clays were different from one crude oil to another; while one crude oil favored combustion more with the presence of clay, the other did not and led to lower oil production by producing more gas.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||15|
Absi-Halabi, M., Stanislaus, A., and Trimm, D.L. 1991. Coke Formation on Catalysts Dring the Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils. Applied Catalysis 72(02) 193–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-9834(91)85053-X.
Abuhesa, M.B. and Hughes, R. 2009. Comparison of Conventional and Catalytic In Situ Combustion Processes for Oil Recovery. Energy & Fuels 23 (01): 186–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef800804a.
Akin, S., Kok, M.V., Bagci, S. 2000. Oxidation of Heavy Oil and Their SARA Fractions: Its Role in Modeling In-Situ Combustion. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 1-4 October. SPE-63230-MS. http//dx.doi.org/10.2118/63230-MS.
Aleksandrov, D. and Hascakir, B. 2015. Laboratory Screening Tests on the Effect of Initial Oil Saturation for the Dynamic Control of In-Situ Combustion. Fuel Processing Technology 130: 224–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/i.fuproc.2014.10.027.
Alexander, J.D., Martin, W.L., and Dew, J.N. 1962. Factors Affecting Fuel Availability and Composition During In Situ Combustion. Journal of Petroleum Technology 14 (10): 1154–1164. SPE-296-PA http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/296-PA.
Bellotto, M., Gualtieri, A., Artioli, G. 1995. Kinetic Study of the Kaolinite-Multiple Reaction Sequence. Part I: Kaolinite Dehydroxylation. Phys Chem Minerals 22 (04): 207–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00202253.
Castanier, L.M. and Brigham, W.E. 2003. Upgrading of Crude Oil via In Situ Combustion. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 39 (01): 125–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(03)00044-5.
Cinar, M., Hascakir, B., Castanier, L. 2011. Predictability of Crude Oil In-Situ Combustion by the Isoconversional Kinetic Approach. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 16(03) 537–547. SPE- 148088-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148088-PA.
Freitag, N.P. and Verkoczy, B. 2005. Low-Temperature Oxidation of Oils in Terms of SARA Fractions: Why Simple Reaction Models Don't Work. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 44 (03): 54–61. PETSOC-05-03-05. http//dx.doi.org/10.2118/05-03-05.
Gates, G.F. and Ramey, H.J. 1980. A Method of Engineering In-Situ Combustion Oil Recovery Projects. Journal of Petroleum Technology 32 (02): 285–94. SPE-7149-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7149-PA.
Gutierrez, D., Skoreyko, F., Moore, R.G. 2009. The Challenge of Predicting Field Performance of Air Injection Projects Based on Laboratory and Numerical Modelling. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 48 (04): 23–33. PETSOC-09-04-23-DA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-04-23-DA.
Hascakir, B., Glatz, G., Castanier, L.M. 2011. In-Situ Combustion Dynamics Visualized with X-ray Computed Tomography. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 16 (03): 524–536. SPE-135186-PA http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135186-PA.
Hascakir, B., Ross, C., Castanier, L.M. 2013. Fuel Formation and Conversion During In-situ Combustion of Crude Oil. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 18 (06): 1217–1228. SPE-146867- PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146867-PA.
Hascakir, B. and Kovscek, A. 2014. Analysis of In-Situ Combustion Performance in Heterogeneous Media. Presented at SPE Heavy Oil Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 10-12 June. SPE-170008- MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170008-MS.
Islam, M.R., Chakma, A., and Farouq Ali, S.M. 1989. State-of-the-Art of In-Situ Combustion Modeling and Operations. Presented at SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 5-7 April. SPE- 18755-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18755-MS.
Kar, T. and Hascakir, B. 2015. The Role of Resins, Asphaltenes, and Water in Water-Oil Emulsion Breaking with Microwave Heating. Energy and Fuels 29 (06):3684–3690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00662.
Kok, M.V. and Karacan, C.O. 1997. Behavior and Effect of SARA Fractions of Oil During Combustion. Presented at International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Bakersfield, California, 10-12 February. SPE-37559-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37559-MS.
Kudryavtsev, P. and Hascakir, B. 2014. Towards Dynamic Control of In-situ Combustion: Effect of Initial Oil and Water Saturations. Presented at SPE Western North America and Rock Mountain Joint Regional Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 16-18 April. SPE-169542-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169542-MS.
Lee, W.J. and Li, C.Z. 2007. Coke Formation and Reaction Pathways of Catalyst-Surface-Generated Radicals During the Pyrolysis of Ethane Using Ni Mesh Catalyst. Applied Catalysis A: General 316 (01): 90–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2006.09.018.
Moore, R.G., Ursenbach, M.G., Laureshen, C.J. 1999. Ramped Temperature Oxidation Analysis of Athabasca Oil Sands Bitumen. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 38 (13): 1–10. PETSOC- 99-13-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99-13-40.
Moore, R.G., Mehta, S.A., Belgrave, J.D.M. 1996. A Downhole Catalytic Upgrading Process for Heavy Oil Using In Situ Combustion. Presented at Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, 10-12 June. PETSOC-96-72. http//dx.doi.org/10.2118/96-72.
Morrow, A., Mukhametshina, A., Aleksandrov, D. 2014. Environmental Impact of Bitumen Extraction with Thermal Recovery. Presented at SPE Heavy Oil Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 10-12 June. SPE-170066-MS. http//dx.doi.org/10.2118/170066-MS
Mukhametshina, A., Morrow, A., Aleksandrov, D. 2014. Evaluation of Four Thermal Recovery Methods for Bitumen Extraction. Presented at SPE Western North America and Rock Mountain Joint Regional Meeting, Denver, Colorado, 17-18 April. SPE-169543-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169543- MS.
Ogunbanwo, O.O., Gerritsen, M.G., and Kovscek, A.R. 2012. Uncertainty Analysis on In-Situ Combustion Simulations Using Experimental Design. Presented at SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 21-23 March. SPE-153887-MS. http//dx.doi.org/10.2118/153887-MS.
Shah, A., Fishwick, R.P., Leeke, G.A. 2010. Experimental Optimization of Catalytic Process In-Situ for Heavy Oil and Bitumen Upgrading. Presented at SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19-21 October. SPE-136870-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/136870-MS.
Somerton, W.H and Radke, C.J. Role of Clays in the Enhanced Recovery of Petroleum Form Some California Sands. Journal of Petroleum Technology35 (03): 643–654. SPE 8845. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8845-PA.
Turta, A.T., Lu, J., Bhattacharya, R.N. 2005. Current Status of the Commercial In Situ Combustion (ISC) Projects and New Approaches to Apply ISC. Presented at Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, 7-9 June. PETSOC-2005-002. http://dx.doi. org/10.2118/2005-002.
Verkoczy, B. 1993. Factors Affecting Coking in Heavy Oil Cores, Oils and SARA Fractions Under Thermal Stress. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 32 (07): 25–33. PETSOC 93-07-02. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93-07-02.
Vossoughi S., Willhite, G.P., Kritikos, W.P. 1982. Automation of an In-Situ Combustion Tube and Study of the Effect of Clay on the In-Situ Combustion Process. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 22(04):493–502. SPE-10320-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10320-PA.
Vossoughi, S., Willhite, G., El Shoubary, Y. 1983. Study of the Clay Effect on Crude Oil Combustion by Thermogravimetry and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Journal of Thermal Analysis 27 (01): 1736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01907318.
Wu, C.H. and Fulton, F.P. 1971. Experimental Simulation of the Zones Preceding the Combustion Front of an In-Situ Combustion Process. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 11 (01): 38–46. SPE-2816- PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2816-PA.
Xia, T.X. and Greaves, M. 2001. Downhole Upgrading Athabasca Tar Sand Bitumen Using THAI - SARA Analysis. Presented at SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Porlamar, Margarita Island, Venezuela, 12-14 March. SPE-69693-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/69693-MS.