Next-Generation Boron-Crosslinked Fracturing Fluids: Breaking the Lower Limits on Polymer Loadings
- Jeremy Holtsclaw (Halliburton) | G. Rocio Montenegro-Galindo (Halliburton) | Prashant Chopade (Halliburton)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 28-30 September, Houston, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2015. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5 Hydraulic Fracturing, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 6.3 Safety, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2 Well completion, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant)
- boron, hydraulic fracturing, low polymer, hydroxypropyl guar, crosslinker
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 255 since 2007
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Hydraulic fracturing is a robust stimulation technique that has been employed for more than 60 years to help increase the recovery rate of hydrocarbons from reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing fluids are key components of the process. Significant efforts have been made to refine the fluids and advance new technology to help improve the economics, efficiency, and safety of the systems. Specifically, the pursuit of fluids that provide reliable and consistent performance while using lower concentrations of polymer, usually guar or a guar derivative, has been a recurrent point of emphasis in fracturing fluid advancement. There are many advantages of using lower polymer concentrations, including lower costs, improved logistics, and introducing less polymer with its associated residues into the fracture, among others.
This paper presents a new fracturing fluid that combines a next-generation boron crosslinker with a new hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) to be crosslinked with 40 to 60% less polymer than used in conventional borate-crosslinked fluids. For this fluid, HPG loadings in the range of 8 to 12 lbm/1,000 gal were used to produce boron-crosslinked stimulation fluids stable up to 200°F. Fluid viscosity testing showed stable fracturing fluids with controlled breaking profiles at temperatures up to 180°F. Dynamic proppant suspension testing indicated that the new fracturing fluid exhibited proppant transport equal to or better than conventional borate fluids. Regained permeability testing using Berea sandstone cores exceeded 75% at 160°F, 85% at 180°F, and 95% at 200°F. Additionally, excellent fluid cleanup was measured by retained proppant pack conductivity with 2 lbm/ft2 20/40-mesh lightweight ceramic proppant.
This new boron-crosslinked fluid retains the "rehealable" property and flexibility of conventional borate-crosslinked fluids; however, the polymer is crosslinked at or near the minimum concentration at which the polymer chains can entangle (and are capable of crosslinking), which is an improvement compared to conventional borate-fluids. This concentration is known as the critical overlap concentration, c*, of the polymer. The use of the new crosslinking technology coupled with the new HPG allows for a two-fold advantage in terms of residue reduction. The derivatized polymer requires additional processing, yielding a cleaner polymer with less residue, and the lower polymer dosage results in a further reduction of residue compared to conventional fluids.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||19|
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