The Impact of Asphaltene Precipitation and Clay Migration on Wettability Alteration for Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and Expanding Solvent-SAGD (ES-SAGD)
- Taniya Kar (Texas A&M University) | Jun Jie Yeoh (Texas A&M University) | Cesar Ovalles (Chevron Energy and Technology Center) | Estrella Rogel (Chevron Energy and Technology Center) | Ian Benson (Chevron Energy and Technology Center) | Berna Hascakir (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, 9-11 June, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2015. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation, 5.3.6 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 4.3.3 Aspaltenes, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.4.10 Microbial Methods
- Wettability, Clay migration, ES-SAGD, Asphaltenes, SAGD
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 389 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
This paper examines the wettability change during Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and Expanding Solvent - SAGD (ES-SAGD). The qualitative and the quantitative analyzes of residual oil for steam and steam-solvent coinjection cases are achieved to investigate the impact of clay migration and asphaltene precipitation on wettability alteration. The solvent selection in ES-SAGD is made according to their solubility in asphaltenes; insoluble (n-hexane), soluble (toluene), and intermediate soluble (cyclohexane). Five experiments (one SAGD and four ES-SAGD) are conducted on a Canadian bitumen. Different solvent injection strategies are followed: coinjection and cyclic injection. Wettability is determined through contact angle measurements on the spent rock samples for both inside and outside steam chamber zones. Residual oil saturation is defined via solvent extraction and with a thermal method; Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Two solvents are used for the extraction: toluene and mixture of 90%dichloromethane+10%methanol. The asphaltene fractions of the residual oil samples are further characterized by determining clay content, Solubility Profile; and carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, nickel, and vanadium contents. Both the thermal and the two solvent extraction methods yield more or less the same residual oil saturations. The asphaltene content of the residual oils (22 to 27 wt%) is found lower than the asphaltene content of original bitumen (34 wt%). However, higher metal content is detected on the residual oil asphaltenes. Analysis of residual oil asphaltenes shows a significant presence of clays in the inside steam chamber region for SAGD, which inhibits effective steam chamber propagation by reducing permeability. This asphaltene-clay interaction increases the oil- wetness of the rock surface and impacts the oil production adversely. However, this effect is minimized by the addition of solvents. The wettability measurements on spent rock samples also support these findings. The elemental analysis of asphaltenes reveals that with the increase in precipitation of asphaltenes (for ES-SAGD with n-hexane), there is an increase in vanadium and nickel concentrations. In terms of asphaltene Solubility Profiles, higher polarity was found for asphaltenes originated from inside the steam chamber zone for ES-SAGD with n-hexane, where the effect of n-hexane in the vapor phase is dominant. This work shows that the effectiveness of ES-SAGD may be in part caused by contributions from wettability changes, clay migration, and asphaltene precipitation in addition to by oil viscosity reduction alone. This study provides information on the interaction of clay, asphaltenes, solvent, and steam during SAGD and ES-SAGD. It explains the behavior of clay and asphaltenes during SAGD and ES-SAGD when different solvents are used.
|File Size||1013 KB||Number of Pages||13|
Ambastha, A. K., Kumar, M., Skow, L. A., Evola, G.M. 2001. Evaluation of Cyclic Steam Operations at Cymric 1Y Diatomite. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 30 Sep-3 Oct, New Orleans, Louisiana. SPE-71500-MS. http ://dxdoi.org/10.2118/71500-MS.
Baker, L. E. 1988. Three-Phase Relative Permeability Correlations. SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, 16–21 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma. SPE-17369-MS. http://dxdoi.org/10.2118/17369-MS.
Bennion, D. B., Thomas, F. B., Sheppard, D. A. 1992. Formation Damage Due to Mineral Alteration and Wettability Changes During Hot Water and Steam Injection in Clay-Bearing Sandstone Reservoirs. SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, 26–27 February, Lafayette, Louisiana. SPE-23783-MS. http://dxdoi.org/10.2118/23783-MS.
Escrochi, M., Nabipour, M., Ayatollahi, S. S., Mehranbod, N. 2008. Wettability Alteration at Elevated Temperatures: The Consequences of Asphaltene Precipitation. SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, 13–15 February, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA. SPE-112428-MS. http://dxdoi.org/10.2118/112428-MS.
Greene, L. R., Blackburn, A. C., Miller, J. M. 2005. Rapid, small-scale determination of organic solvent solubility using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. Volume 39, Issues 1–2, September 2005, 344–347. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2005.03.022.
Haghighat, P. and Maini, B. B. 2010. Role of Asphaltene Precipitation in VAPEX Process. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology 49 (3). SPE-134244-PA. http://dxdoi.org/10.2118/134244-PA.
Hascakir, B. and Kovscek, A. R. 2010. Reservoir Simulation of Cyclic Steam Injection Including the Effects of Temperature Induced Wettability Alteration. SPE Western Regional Meeting, 27–29 may, Anaheim, California, USA. SPE-132608-MS. http://dxdoi.org/10.2118/132608-MS.
Kar, T., Williamson, M., Hascakir, B. 2014. The Role of Asphaltenes in Emulsion Formation for Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and Expanding Solvent-SAGD (ES-SAGD). SPE Heavy and Extra Heavy Oil Conference: Latin America, 24–26 September, Medellin, Colombia. SPE-171076-MS. http://dxdoi.org/10.2118/171076-MS.
Kumar, M., Beatty, F. D. 1995. Cyclic Steaming in Heavy Oil Diatomite. SPE Western Regional Meeting, 8–10 March, Bakersfield, California. SPE-29623-MS. http://dxdoi.org/10.2118/29623-M.
Kumar, M. and Do, T. N. 1990. Effects of Endpoint Saturations and Relative Permeability Models on Predicted Steamflood Performance. SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, 22–225 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma. SPE-20202-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20202-MS.
Mohammadzadeh, O., Rezaei, N., Chatzis, I. 2010. Pore-level Investigation of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Recovery Using Solvent-Aided Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SA-SAGD) Process. Energy & Fuels 26 (12): 6327–6345. http://dxdoi.org/10.1021/ef100621s.
Mullins, O. C. 2008. Review of the Molecular Structure and Aggregation of Asphaltenes and Petroleomics. SPE Journal. SPE-95801-PA. http://dxdoi.org/10.2118/95801-PA.
Poston, S. W., Ysrael, S., Hossain, A. K. M. S., Montgomery III, E. F. 1970. The Effect of Temperature on Irreducible Water Saturation and Relative Permeability of Unconsolidated Sands. SPE Journal. SPE-1897-PA. http://dxdoi.org/10.2118/1897-PA.
Rogel, E.; Ovalles, C.; Moir, M. "On Column Filtration Asphaltene Characterization Methods for the Analysis of Produced Crude Oil and Deposits from Upstream Operations" Accepted to be published in "Analytical Methods in Petroleum Upstream Applicatio ns" Ovalles, O. and Rechsteiner, C.jr, CRC Press, 2014.
Yuan, J. Y., Law, D. H. S., Nasr, T. N. 2002. Benefit of Wettability Change Near the Production Well in SAGD. Canadian International Petroleum Conference, 11–13 June, Calgary, Alberta. PETS0C-2002-255. http://dxdoi.org/10.2118/2002-255.