New Al-based and Dual Cross-linkers to Form a Strong Gel for Hydraulic Fracturing Treatments
- Khatere Sokhanvarian (Texas A&M University) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University) | Thomas L. Harper (MaxFlo Oilfield Chemical Solutions Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- EUROPEC 2015, 1-4 June, Madrid, Spain
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2015. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 3 Production and Well Operations, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 2 Well completion, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating
- Cross-linkers, Gel, Fracturing
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 181 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 8.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 25.00|
Hydraulic fracturing has been a common practice in US. The chemistry of hydraulic fracturing fluids is very complicated, which makes the optimization process challenging. In designing fracturing fluids, one of the major unknowns is the fluid chemistry. Therefore, understanding the chemistry and interactions between chemicals to form a strong gel is a must. A strong gel is a factor of different parameters such as polymer loadings, crosslinker concentrations, buffer systems, and temperatures.
Different crosslinkers such as boron and several metals including titanium, zirconium, and aluminum have been used in the oil and gas industry. Aluminum and boron reside in the same group on the periodic table. The latter means that there are some similarities in their chemistry. Aluminum chemistry is critical in the preparation of highly effective aluminum-based crosslinkers. Therefore, the objective is to 1) investigate the performance of two new Al-based and Al-Zr-based crosslinkers to form a stable gel with Carboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guar (CMHPG) at high temperatures and shear rates, and 2) determine the leakoff rates of the cross-linked gels with the optimized formulations.
New aluminum-based and aluminum-zirconium crosslinkers to form a stable gel with guar derivatives are studied. This study investigates various parameters including polymer loading, crosslinker concentrations, pH, and temperatures to form a high quality gel. High viscosity gels increases fracture width, and also can carry higher concentrations of proppant that leads to fluid loss decrease and enhances the propant transport.
The results of this study indicate that Al-based crosslinkers at pH 10.8 and 3.8 are very effective in forming high quality gels that are stable at temperatures up to 250°F after 140 minutes. Varying shear rate is studied and the results showed that the Al-based crosslinkers in this study are stable at shear rate of 170 s-1 if an optimized formulations is chosen. It is found that forming a stable gel is strongly a function of concentrations of Al crosslinkers as shear rate increases. Time and temperatures delay in forming gels can be achieved through the optimization of pH, crosslinker concentrations, and polymer loadings.
Extensive lab research and understanding the chemistry of crosslinkers help to design a successful field treatment.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Haghshenas, A. and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2014. Effect of Dissolved Solids on Reuse of Produced Water and Proppant Handling in Hydraulic Fracturing Jobs in Tight Sand Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 168614 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference held in The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 4–6 February.
Harris, P.C. 1988. Fracturing-Fluid Additives. J Pet Technol 40(10): 1277–1279. DOI: 10.2118/17112-pa
Loveless, D., Holtsclaw, J., Saini, R., et al. 2011. Fracturing Fluid Comprised of Components Sourced Solely From the Food Industry Provided Superior Proppant Transport. Paper SPE 147206 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 30 October-2 November.
Zillur, R., Hamoud, A., and Adnan, A. 2013. Selecting Optimal Fracture Fluids, Breaker System, and PrOPPANTType for Sucessful Hydraulic Fracturing and Enhanced Gas Production – Case Studies. Paper SPE 163976 presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Muskat, Oman, 28-30 Januarary.