First 100% Reuse of Bakken Produced Water in Hybrid Treatments Using Inexpensive Polysaccharide Gelling Agents
- Blake McMahon (Schlumberger) | Bruce MacKay (Schlumberger) | Andrey Mirakyan (Schlumberger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, 13-15 April, The Woodlands, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2015. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.7.1 Completion Fluids, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 2.2.2 Perforating
- fracturing, produced water, crosslinked gel
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 367 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 9.50|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
The modern horizontal multistage well is a main contributor to the recent transformation of North American oil and gas production. The large fracturing stage volume that defines unconventional wells, crossed against the increasing numbers of stages and laterals per pad, has dramatically increased the demand for fracturing materials such as sand, friction reducers, and gelling agents, and most especially water. At the same time, operators face increasing accumulations of produced water, which presents as water cut from more mature assets. It is therefore natural to propose using produced water as mixwater for fracturing fluids in new completions, but in practice this plan has met with two major barriers: first, regulatory and logistical hurdles concerning the storage, handling, and potential environmental impacts of the volume of produced water required to complete a modern well (millions of gallons per lateral), and second, technology gaps in the applied chemistry of completion fluids, particularly in crosslinked gels.
This paper reports the completion of a two-lateral well in the Williston Basin where produced water, filtered but otherwise untreated, was used throughout the slickwater and crosslinked components of about sixty hydraulic fracturing stages.
Proppant was successfully placed in all perforated zones in the Bakken and Three Forks formations, using a “hybrid” design that employed seven million gallons of water (of which 2.2 million gallons were crosslinked). Production figures for the well are satisfactory, and this is discussed in the context of fluid-related completion quality. This paper will concentrate on the development and implementation of a metal crosslinked fracturing fluid that shows excellent stability at typical Bakken conditions. We will present a comparison to conventional guar-borate systems.
The promise of this approach has many potential benefits. First, completion costs are decreased as freshwater sourcing and produced water disposal charges cancel each other. Second, far fewer truck trips are necessary to transport water. Third, the industry no longer requires fresh water sources or disposal wells where this technique is employed.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||9|
Bonapace, J., Giglio, M., Moggia, J., and Krenz, A. 2012. Water Conservation: Reducing Fresh Water Consumption by Using Produced Water for Base Fluid in Hydraulic Fracturing – Case Histories in Argentina. Paper SPE151819 presented at SPE Latin American and Carribean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Mexico City, Mexico, 16-18 April 2012.
Schmidt, D.D.; MacKay, B.A.; Williams, B.; Beck, F.E.; Bell, A; McMahon, B.W.; Bradley, H.; Lian, E. 2015 Overcoming Obstacles for Produced Water in Bakken Well Stimulations. Paper SPE173372, presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference held in The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 3–5 February 2015.
Zhou, J.; Baltazar, M; Sun, H.; Qu, Q.; 2014. Water-Based Environmentally Preferred Friction Reducer in Ultrahigh-TDS Produced Water for Slickwater Fracturing in Shale Reservoirs. Paper SPE167775 presented at the SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 25-27 February, 2014.