A Critical Review of Emerging Challenges for the Oil Field Waters in the United States
- Maaz Ali (Texas A&M University) | Berna Hascakir (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE E&P Health, Safety, Security and Environmental Conference-Americas, 16-18 March, Denver, Colorado, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2015. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4 Facilities Design, Construction and Operation, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 7 Management and Information, 7.2 Risk Management and Decision-Making, 3 Production and Well Operations, 3.2.6 Produced Water Management, 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 2 Well completion, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 4.1 Processing Systems and Design, 7.2.1 Risk, Uncertainty and Risk Assessment, 3.2 Well Operations, Optimization and Stimulation
- Hydraulic Fracturing, Human Health Effects, Produced Water Management, Steam Injection Processes, Environmental Impact
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 400 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
The rapid rise of oil production from unconventional resources due to the increase in oil demand brings several potential risks to the environment. Governments strictly regulate the oil field water use, treatment, and disposal to reduce both the environmental and the public health effects. Hence, exploration and production companies face several challenges mainly for the management of produced water originated from any water injection processes. On a global scale, the average water cut has increased to nearly 75%. And in the U.S., the water cut is even higher (i.e., 91%) which results in a severe reduction in revenue. The average cost for handling and disposing water can range from $0.50 to $16.80 per barrel of water. In fact, the oil and gas industry in the U.S. spends $5-10 billion per year for the handling of the produced water. Furthermore, this cost does not take into account the loss of hydrocarbons due to the excess production of water. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new technologies for oil and gas production which will reduce (i) the water use for the sustainability of the water resources, (ii) the environmental and health effects of the produced water and (iii) the enormous costs of the produced water management. This paper evaluates both the current strategies and future trends that are followed in the U.S. to manage the produced waters originated from hydraulic fracturing, water flooding, and steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). The paper first summarizes the water injection projects in the U.S. Then, the quantitative impact of each process to the human health and environment along with the differences in the quality of the produced water due to the rock-fluid interactions and the additives used in the processes are discussed. Finally, the industrial attempts on the produced water management for the reduction in water use, reuse of the produced water, and the water treatment are examined. This paper provides a critical review on current and future trends of the produced water management. The short and long term effects to the environment due to the rapid changes in the quality of the water resources are criticized.
|File Size||555 KB||Number of Pages||19|
Arthur, D., Langhus, B., and Patel, C. 2005. "Technical Summary of Oil and Gas Produced Water Treatment Technologies." ALL Consulting, LLC. http://www.all-llc.com/publicdownloads/ALLConsulting-WaterTreatmentOptionsReport.pdf, Accessed on November 18, 2014.
BG Group. 2013. "A Sustainable water strategy –BG Group takes the lead on water- a vital issue for gas in the US and beyond." BG Group. Houston, Texas, USA, http://www.bg-group.com/~/tiles/?tiletype=news&id=62, Accessed on December 1, 2014.
BP Statistical Review. 2012. "BP Statistical Review of World Energy June 2012." http://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/Statistical-Review-2012/statistical_review_of_world_energy_2012.pdf, Accessed on October 27 2012.
Challenges in Reusing Produced Water. 2011. SPE White Paper. http://www.spe.org/industry/docs/reusingwater.pdf, Accessed on November 16, 2014.
Clark, C.E, and Veil, J.A., 2009. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States. Argonne Laboratories. Washington, DC. http://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/dsp_detail.cfm?PubID=2437, Accessed on November 5, 2014.
EOG. 2014. "Water Management." EOG. http://www.eogresources.com/responsibility/water_management.html, Accessed on December 1, 2014.
Greenfacts. "Fluoride." Greenfacts. http://www.greenfacts.org/en/fluoride/, Accessed on December 5, 2014.
IHS. 2013. "America's New Energy Future." IHS. Englewood, Colorado, USA. http://www.energyxxi.org/sites/default/files/pdf/Americas_New_Energy_Future_Phase3.pdf, Accessed on October 25, 2014.
International Energy Agency (IEA). 2012. "World Energy Outlook 2012." IEA. http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/publications/weo-2012/, Accessed on October 25, 2014.
Marathon Oil Corporation. 2014. "Water Management." Marathon Oil Corp. http://www.marathonoil.com/Social_Responsibility/Environmental_Stewardship/Water_Management/, Accessed on 11/20/2014.
OilPrice. 2014. "OPEC Refuses to Cut Production, Sending Oil Down Again." OilPrice. http://oilprice.com/Energy/Oil-Prices/OPEC-Refuses-To-Cut-Production-Sending-Oil-Price-Down-Again.html, Accessed on December 5, 2014.
Oklahoma Administrative Code and Register (OAR). 2014. "Oklahoma Administrative Code." http://www.oar.state.ok.us/oar/codedoc02.nsf/frmMain?OpenFrameSet&Frame=Main&Src=_75tnm2shfcdnm8pb4dthj0chedppmcbq8dtmmak31ctijujrgcln50ob7ckj42tbkdt374obdcli00_, Accessed on November 20, 2014.
Torabi, F., Firouz, A., Crockett, M. 2012. "Feasibility Study of Hot Waterflooding to Enhance Heavy Oil Recovery: Investigation of the Effect of Well Spacing, Horizontal Well Configuration and Injection Parameters." Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 12-14 June 2012. SPE 157856.
U.S Department of Energy (DOE). 2013. "How is Shale Gas Produced?" DOE. http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/04/f0/how_is_shale_gas_produced.pdf, Accessed on 11/3/2014.
U.S Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2012. "Annual Energy Outlook 2012." EIA. Washington, DC., USA. http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/pdf/0383%282012%29.pdf, Accessed on November 2, 2014.
U.S Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2013. "U.S Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves." DOE. Washington D.C, USA. http://www.eia.gov/naturalgas/crudeoilreserves/pdf/uscrudeoil.pdf, Accessed on December 1, 2014.
U.S Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2014. "Current Issues and Trends." EIA. Washington, D.C, USA. http://www.eia.gov/analysis/, Accessed on October 15, 2014.
U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2004. "Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids." EPA. http://www.epa.gov/ogwdw/uic/pdfs/cbmstudy_attach_uic_ch04_hyd_frac_fluids.pdf, Accessed December 3, 2014.
U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2009. "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations." EPA. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/consumer/pdf/mcl.pdf, Accessed on November 29, 2014.
U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2012a. "Guidelines for Water Reuse." EPA. Washington, DC, USA. http://nepis.epa.gov/Adobe/PDF/P100FS7K.pdf, Accessed December 3, 2014.
U.S Energy Protection Agency (EPA). 2012b. "Proposed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ("NPDES") General Permit No. CAG280000 for Offshore Oil and Gas Exploration, Development and Production Operations off Southern California." http://www.epa.gov/region9/water/npdes/pdf/ocs-general-permit-factsheet-2012.pdf, Accessed November 15, 2014.
U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2014. "Class II Wells – Oil and Gas Related Injection Wells (Class II)." EPA. Washington, DC, USA. http://water.epa.gov/type/groundwater/uic/class2/, Accessed on November 19, 2014.
U.S Geological Survey (USGS). 2000. "Public-supply water use." USGS. Washington, DC, USA. http://water.usgs.gov/edu/wups.html, Accessed on December 1, 2014.
U.S Geological Survey (USGS). 2005. "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005." USGS. Washington, DC, USA. http://www.fracfocus.org/sites/default/files/publications/estimated_use_of_water_in_the_united_states_in_2005.pdf, Accessed on November 19, 2014.
William E.D. and Simmons J.E. 2013. "Water in the Energy Industry- An Introduction." BP. London, UK. http://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/pdf/sustainability/group-reports/BP-ESC-water-handbook.pdf, Accessed November 29, 2014.
World Energy Resources. 2010. "2010 Survey of Energy Resources." World Energy Council. London, UK. http://www.worldenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/ser_2010_report_1.pdf, Accessed November 8, 2014.