Optimized Shale Resource Development: Balance Between Technology and Economic Considerations
- U. Ahmed (Baker Hughes)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Energy Resources Conference, 9-11 June, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2014. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 3 Production and Well Operations, 1.12.2 Logging While Drilling, 5.7 Reserves Evaluation, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 7.1.9 Project Economic Analysis, 4.6 Natural Gas, 7.6.6 Artificial Intelligence, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 1.12.3 Mud logging / Surface Measurements, 5.8.4 Shale Oil, 1.2.1 Wellbore integrity, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.3.3 Aspaltenes, 5.6.11 Reservoir monitoring with permanent sensors, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 1.5 Drill Bits, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 1.6.3 Drilling Optimisation, 1.12.1 Measurement While Drilling, 1.1 Well Planning, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 3.1.2 Electric Submersible Pumps, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 2.5.4 Multistage Fracturing, 7.6.2 Data Integration, 5.8.6 Naturally Fractured Reservoir, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 7.6.4 Data Mining, 7.1.10 Field Economic Analysis, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.8.3 Coal Seam Gas, 1.6.7 Geosteering / Reservoir Navigation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 1.6.2 Technical Limit Drilling, 5.1.7 Seismic Processing and Interpretation, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 1.2.5 Drilling vibration management, 2 Well completion, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.1.3 Sedimentology, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 2.5.1 Fracture design and containment, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 3.4.5 Bacterial Contamination and Control, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 3.1.5 Plunger lift, 5.6.5 Tracers, 4.3.4 Scale, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.6.1 Drilling Operation Management, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.8 Formation Damage, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis
- Economic considerations, Well placement, Fit-for-purpose yechnology, Unconventional is alow margin business, frac stage placement
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Shale resource development technology is being improved and optimized over the last decade as the industry has seen a sharp rise in production and IP rates in North America and most recently from Europe and Australia while initial activities are on the rise in Latin America, Middle East and China. Despite such improvements, if one takes a closer look at the performance of the wells, one will find that not all wells are producing commercially and for that matter even wells that are producing commercially not all hydraulic fracture stages are contributing. This scenario is further compounded with the fact that unconventional resource development has a narrow profit margin for the E&P operators and in turn for the service industry. The industry needs to focus on the balance between efficient deployment of fit-for-purpose technology with strict economics in mind.
This conundrum potentially suggests that when dealing with shale resource one is faced with sweet spot identification in a basin / field and at the same time moving away from geometric (say every 250 ft.) selection of hydraulic fracture stages and placing stages where appropriate from a productivity point of view.
This paper documents certain well defined criterion used to identify the sweet spot location within a field / basin for the optimal well placement. We further document the vital formation / zone characteristic related information that can define the placement for hydraulic fracture stages and thus move away from the arbitrary geometric placement. Such an optimized plan can allow placement of productive wells and frac stages and thereby enhancing productivity and reducing well drilling and stimulation expenses. The key is effective cost reduction.
The paper illustrates the well placement optimization process through a combination of seismic attribute analysis combined with petrophysical and geochemical analysis via core and geophysical log measurements. The hydraulic fracture stage placement relies on the need to understand existing natural fracture system through geophysical log measurements and the interaction between the created hydraulic bi-wing tensile fracture and the surrounding shear fractures.
The paper concludes by presenting examples from three basins demonstrating the practical application of the methodology.
|File Size||9 MB||Number of Pages||39|
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