Compositional Simulation of Condensate Banking Inside Hydraulic Fracture Coupled with Reservoir Geomechanics
- Hui Deng (University of Calgary) | Zhangxin John Chen (University of Calgary) | Mohammad H. Nikpoor (University of Calgary) | Chao Charlie Dong (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Unconventional Resources Conference-USA, 10-12 April, The Woodlands, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs, 5.1.10 Reservoir Geomechanics, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.4.3 Gas Cycling, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.3.1 Flow in Porous Media, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation
- Geomechanics, Reservoir simulation, Gas Condensate, Hydraulic fracture
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Horizontal wells with multistage hydraulic fracturing stimulation become the common practice in developing tight and shale gas reservoirs. For gas condensate reservoirs, heavier components in the gas phase start dropping and decrease the gas mobility due to a relative-permeability relationship as reservoir pressure drops below the saturation pressure. Therefore, modeling the condensate banking along hydraulic fractures becomes critical in understanding the productivity loss, the hydraulic fracturing job design as well as the field production optimization. In addition, along with pressure depletion, the stress dependent permeability must be taken into account either by an approximation derived from lab experiments inside a finite difference flow simulator or modeling separately by a finite element geomechanics code.
A condensate fluid pseudoization that reduces nine hydrocarbon components to a pseudo three components mixture is presented in this paper. The control volume based multiphase multi-components thermal simulator FATS is utilized in modeling the condensate banking inside the hydraulic fractures and surrounding matrix blocks. A K-value interpolation algorithm is developed and validated by a two-phase envelope generated by an Equation of State (EOS). FATS results are validated by the EOS based reservoir simulator GEM.
A compositional simulation model is coupled with reservoir geomechanics in this study to investigate the interaction of stress changes and its effects on multiphase flow along fractures. A modular coupled approach is implemented for solving the stress and flow equations at each time step by the iteration between the reservoir simulator and geomechanical module. Pressure and temperature changes occurring in the reservoir simulator are passed to the geomechanical simulator to compute the changing of stress and strain and updating porosity and permeability simultaneously. Simulation results show that fracture conductivity reduction is due to the combination of condensate banking and changing of the effective stress along hydraulic fractures.
Modeling of petroleum reservoirs is a decisive task helping to understand and predict the reservoir performance and planning for strategies that lead to higher economic outcomes of projects. Petroleum occurs in different forms and specific modeling methods should be taken for each kind of underground hydrocarbon (HC) fluid system; among these are gas condensate (or so called retrograde gas condensate) reservoirs modeling of which has been a problem for years.
Gas condensate fluids are gases rich in condensable HC components that may form considerable liquid phase amounts at reservoir conditions as the pressure drops during the production phase (Ahmed et al., 1998). As the pressure in the near-wellbore region drops below the dew point, the condensate forms a ring around the wellbore and reduces the gas deliverability. One remedy to this problem is pressure maintenance by lean gas cycling which vaporizes the condensate back to the gas phase which in turn can be produced easily. In case of tight formations, hydraulic fracturing is a common mitigating technology to enhance the productivity index; it also eases the condensate flow toward the wellbore along the fracture plane. The condensate may also form in the wellbore and if the gas fails to carry the liquid droplets to the surface, they accumulate at the bottom of the wellbore causing even more condensation and hinder the flow of gas to the surface.
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