Gel treatment is a cost-effective method for oilfield conformance control. Traditionally, in-situ gels formed by the reaction of polymer and crosslinker at reservoirs have been used widely to control conformance. However, a newer trend is to apply preformed particle gels (PPGs) for this purpose because they are formed at surface facilities before injection and they overcome some distinct drawbacks inherent in in-situ gelation systems, such as lack of control over the gelation time, gelling uncertainty due to shear degradation, chromatographic fractionation or change of gelant compositions, and dilution by formation water. PPGs are characterized as having robust gel chemistries and as being highly insensitive to petroleum reservoir environments and interferences. They can resist temperatures up to 120 ºC (250 ºF) and are compatible with any kind of formation water. In this paper, we describe and discuss our extensive laboratory and field experiences with the widely applied and successful PPG technology. Highlights of illustrative PPG field applications and results are presented. An overview of what over a decade of experience in applying the PPG technology has taught us is discussed. This includes a discussion of classifying and distinguishing conformance problems and treatments, attributes of good candidate wells, requirements that must be met in candidate wells, gel treatment elements that must be implemented successfully to achieve success, and the guidelines as to where PPG conformance treatments are applied most successfully.
Number of Pages
Looking for more?
Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.