A Diagenetic Diagram As A Tool For Systematic Detailed Characterization Of Carbonate Rocks: Applications To The Diagenetic Evolution Of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
- Nuno Ines (Partex Oil and Gas) | Ana Azeredo (Universidade de Lisboa) | Paulo Bizarro | Maria Teresa Ribeiro (Partex Oil and Gas) | Adnan Nagah (Petroleum Institute)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, 11-14 November , Abu Dhabi, UAE
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 5.6.2 Core Analysis
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Carbonate reservoirs are commonly heterogeneous and their reservoir quality results from complex interactions between depositional facies and diagenetic processes. The Diagenetic Diagram is a powerful tool that helps in the characterization of the diagenetic processes that have affected the reservoir. From this knowledge, it is possible to significantly improve the understanding of the reservoir's pore system and permeability distributions, which are key factors for development optimization and production sustainability.
A multi-scale and multi-method study (petrography, blue-dye impregnation, selective staining and porosity determination) of Middle Jurassic carbonates from the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal) has been undertaken, to find the best systematic approach to these reservoirs. It has involved thorough diagenetic characterization of each lithotype (lithofacies, texture, porosity, qualitative permeability assessment and diagenetic evolution). The study area was selected based on its excellent and varied exposures of carbonate facies and availability of core.
Methodological and terminological challenges were faced during the study, especially dealing with data coming from several scales (macro, meso, and micro). In order to overcome these challenges, a diagenetic diagram was developed and applied to the selected rocks. It is a tool that allows the integration of data coming from outcrops, hand samples, cores, cuttings, thin sections, and laboratory experiments.
This is carried out in a dynamic, guided, systematic, and rigorous way, enabling the evaluation of the relationship between facies, diagenetic evolution and pore systems. The latter are characterized regarding size, geometry, distribution, and connectivity. This enables the identification and characterization of permeability heterogeneities in the rocks. It was concluded that the main porosity class (i.e. secondary) was created by diagenetic processes.
The proposed method has strong application potential for: detailed characterization and understanding of porosity and permeability in carbonate reservoirs, from a diagenetic evolution and fluid flow perspective (e.g. SCAL and pore system description); definition of diagenetic trends for modeling petrophysical properties and rock types. In this regard, the method is being applied to a Valanginian carbonate reservoir in Kazakhstan, and some preliminary results are presented in this paper. Refining this technique may be helpful for similar carbonate studies, enhancing the results of typical diagenetic studies by improving the characterization of reservoir properties at various scales, thus contributing to a more sustainable exploitation of hydrocarbon reservoirs.
This tool integrates several existing classifications and also some new qualitative classifications that allow the integration of data coming from outcrops, hand samples, cores, cuttings, thin sections, and laboratory experiments. The Diagenetic Diagram was developed with the aim to understand the role of facies, facies associations, depositional environments and diagenetic processes in the genesis of porosity and permeability. This will help to define the geobodies/areas with greater reservoir potential, and evaluate the weight of the individual facies and diagenetic evolution in the genesis of the current porosity and permeability in reservoirs.
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