Efforts on Technology Application to Unlock Gas Reserves in Low Permeability Reservoirs: A Lesson-Learned in Semberah Field, East-Kalimantan, Indonesia
- Bhakti Widiastuti (VICO Indonesia) | Usman Jauhari (VICO Indonesia) | Andre Wijanarko (VICO Indonesia) | Robhy C. Permana (VICO Indonesia)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, 22-24 October, Perth, Australia
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 1.12.2 Logging While Drilling, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 1.6.1 Drilling Operation Management, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 2 Well Completion, 2.2.2 Perforating, 1.2.7 Geosteering / reservoir navigation, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 2.7.1 Completion Fluids, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 1.6 Drilling Operations
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The Semberah field is located onshore on the Mahakam delta, East-Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is operated by VICO Indonesia. Reservoirs in this field consist of multi-layered sandstones deposited in a complex fluvio-deltaic environment. After more than 30 years of production, this field has reached a mature stage. Most of the remaining reserves are locked in low permeability reservoirs, on which conventional techniques have not been very effective in depleting the reserves.
These low-permeability reservoirs require technology innovations to economically produce the reserves. A comprehensive approach was taken by a multidisciplinary team of geologists, reservoir engineers, drilling and completion engineers to assess options for technology application and identify candidate reservoirs for low-perm zone development. Several technologies were considered including horizontal wells, radial jetting, and hydraulic fracturing. Of the technologies applied, horizontal well was proven as the most effective technique to increase productivity of these low-perm reservoirs. One horizontal well was successfully executed and intersected 867 ft of lateral section into the target reservoir. The well was put on production giving exceptional results. For comparison, the well increased the gas production rate of the target reservoir from 1 MMSCFD using conventional techniques to 15 MMSCFD using horizontal drilling. Currently, the horizontal well is still producing. Cumulative production has reached in excess of 7 BCF after a period of 6 years. Other technologies, such as radial jetting and hydraulic fracturing, were also applied but they recover moderate-size gas reserves with less successful results. Lessons-learned were captured and several elements of improvement were identified for future application.
This paper illustrates the lessons learned in searching for the fit-for-purpose technology application to unlock gas reserves in low-permeability reservoirs in a geologically complex environment such as the Semberah field.
The Semberah field is located in the major oil and gas bearing Kutei Basin, East Kalimantan, Indonesia (Figure 1a). A giant Mahakam river has been highly active depositing sediments into the basin since Early Miocene to recent years. The sediment accumulation in the basin reaches more than 17,000 ft in thickness. The active sedimentation has deposited hundreds of sand layers in the Semberah field. This multi-layer characteristic creates multi-hydrocarbon tanks distributed over vertical and lateral stratigraphic levels (Figure 1b). The field has been on producing since 1974. The field reached its peak production in 2000, and cum production has exceeded 0.5 TCF and 50 MMBO. Currently this field is producing 25 MMSCFD of gas and 1500 BOPD. Most of the production is coming from high permeability, shallow reservoirs (C-G markers). After more than 38 years of production many of the shallow reservoirs are already depleted and close to its ultimate recovery. Meanwhile, significant volumes of reserves are still remaining in some of the low-permeability reservoirs (I and J marker). Conventional techniques have been initially applied in these low-permeability reservoirs. The results show that the conventional technology is not effective enough and not economically attractive to produce these remaining reserves.
To meet these challenges and optimally produce the reserves in low permeability reservoirs, VICO Indonesia has assessed several technologies. The technology application includes horizontal well, radial jetting and hydraulic fracturing. This paper will describe the results of these technology applications and the key lessons learned.
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