Influence of Nanomaterials in Oilwell Cement Hydration and Mechanical Properties
- Ashok Kumar Santra (Halliburton) | Peter Boul (Halliburton) | Xueyu Pang (halliburton)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference and Exhibition, 12-14 June, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.1 Hydrates, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 4.3.4 Scale, 2 Well Completion, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.14 Casing and Cementing
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Nanotechnology encompasses a wide scope of disciplines and nanomaterials are now being used as commercially viable solutions to technical challenges in industries ranging from electronics to bio-medicine. Recently, the application of nanomaterials to solve problems in oilwell cementing has begun to be investigated by several different research groups in the oil and gas industry. The following uses of nanomaterials have been presented by several independent laboratories as possibilities in the oilwell cementing industry: (1) nanosilica and nanoalumina as potential accelerators; (2) nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high aspect ratio to enhance mechanical properties; (3) nanomaterials to reduce permeability/porosity; and (4) nanomaterials to increase thermal and/or electrical conductivity.
In this paper, a review of the aforementioned application concepts is presented with a focus on understanding the role of multiwall CNTs (MWNTs), nanosilica, and nanoalumina in oilwell cement hydration chemistry. The influence of the integration of MWNTs into oilwell cement on the physical properties of cement is discussed. Results from an isothermal microcalorimetric study are presented to help understand the difference between the mode of acceleration of a typical cement accelerator, like CaCl2, compared to nanosilica and/or nanoalumina.
In recent years, the conceptual framework of nanotechnology has demonstrated utility across a wide variety of industries, from textiles and defense to aerospace and energy. While the materials in these industries can vary greatly, the fundamental concept that a superior and more functional organization of matter is achieved through an intelligent design from the "bottom up?? remains the same. This is no different in the cement industry, where self-sensing, self-healing, self-cleaning, and strength enhancement are concepts now frequently discussed in the research community.
The inclusion of nanoscale particles into Portland cement paste, mortar, or concrete can impart functionality into cements yielding a variety of different emergent property enhancements. Generally, nanomaterial induced property enhancements have been observed and reported to include (1) early strength development, (2) increased long-term tensile-to-compressive-strength ratio, (3) viscosity enhancement, and (4) overall increases in the early-stage compressive strength. These modifications and enhancements are attributed to factors such as densification, particle packing, acceleration, high surface area, increased nucleation sites, and structural reinforcement. This paper focuses on the influence of nanoparticles, specifically on the fresh and the hardened properties of the mixture (Senff et al. 2010; Jalal et al. 2012; Khaloo et al. 2011; Leemann and Winnefeld 2007; Hosseini et al. 2010; Ozyildirim and Zegetosky 2010; Gaitero et al. 2010; Shih et al. 2006; Ltifi et al. 2011; Gaitero et al. 2008). In particular, how nanosilica and nanoalumina can act as potential accelerators is investigated. How CNTs with high aspect ratios can enhance the mechanical properties of cements is also discussed. Certain nanomaterials that serve to reduce the cement's permeability/porosity are described, and how some nanomaterials increase the thermal and/or electrical conductivity in cement is briefly addressed.
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