Production Performance Diagnostics Using Field Production Data and Analytical Models: Method and Case Study for the Hydraulically Fractured South Belridge Diatomite
- Zhengming Yang (Aera Energy LLC)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Western Regional Meeting, 21-23 March, Bakersfield, California, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 3.3 Well & Reservoir Surveillance and Monitoring, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 3.1 Artificial Lift Systems, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting
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Oil and water production data are regularly measured in oil field operations and vary from well to well and change with time. Theoretical models are often used to establish the production expectation for different recovery processes. A performance surveillance understanding can be developed by comparing the field production data with the production expectation. This comparison generates quantitative or qualitative signals to determine if the producer meets production expectation or if the producer is underperforming and appropriate operational action is required to address the underperformance.
The case study is for the South Belridge diatomite in California. This hydraulically fractured diatomite reservoir is currently under waterflood and steamflood. A methodology is proposed to establish the production expectation from historical production data. For primary depletion, the formation linear and bilinear flow models are applied to producers with vertical hydraulic fractures. For waterflood, an analytical method based on Buckley-Leveret displacement theory is used. Those analytical methods can predict production and provide surveillance signals for producers in the primary and waterflood recovery stages. For steamflood, a semi-quantitative performance surveillance criterion is proposed based on understanding the mechanistic oil banking concept and reservoir simulation results for steamflood and waterflood. With those models representing expected production performance, an integrated flow regime diagram is proposed for the purpose of production surveillance. A performance expectation can be developed for an individual producer. A significant over-performance relative to the expectation normally indicates changes in the recovery mechanism or improvement in sweep efficiency. A significant under-performance usually signifies an operational issue that requires correction in order to optimize the production performance.
In the case study, the surveillance methodology for producers under primary depletion, waterflood, steamflood are demonstrated using historical production data. In addition, water channeling between injectors and producers and its impact on production performance is discussed. Based on this surveillance methodology, some operational actions were proposed and successful results are demonstrated. Examples of forecast for individual producer in primary depletion stage and field scale prediction in waterflood stage are provided. Application indicates that the proposed methodology can serve as a convenient and practical tool for reservoir surveillance and operational optimization.
The South Belridge diatomite is a 1600 ft thick, low permeability (0.01-3md), high porosity (˜60%) reservoir 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield, California. Both injectors and producers are hydraulically fractured as a standard operating method due to the low permeability. Significant primary production started in 1977 and waterflood began in the late 1980's. Steamflood has been successfully tested since 1995 and is now being expanded in some parts of the field.
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