Optimizing CO2 Injection in an Offshore Field Considering Operational Constraints
- Marcelo Becher Rosa (Petrobras) | Celso Cesar M. Branco (Petrobras S.A.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Latin America and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, 16-18 April, Mexico City, Mexico
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.3 Aspaltenes, 5.4.10 Microbial Methods, 5.2 Fluid Characterization, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 6.5.3 Waste Management, 4.2.4 Risers, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.3 Flow Assurance, 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 5.4.3 Gas Cycling, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 4.1.4 Gas Processing
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The continued increase in oil demand associated with the growing concern about the greenhouse gases has been an additional driver for CO2 injection into oil reservoirs. The application of this EOR method usually occurs at a later stage in the development of a field in which the operating surface facilities were normally not specified to manage high levels of CO2. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate, by proper fluid characterization and compositional reservoir simulation, the benefits and risks of CO2 injection in a particular sector of an offshore reservoir, surrounded by production units not fully specified to deal with elevated concentrations of CO2.
The presented workflow, combining reservoir engineering analysis with production equipment aspects, can be applied to any target field for a CO2 injection project. However, it is even more relevant for mature offshore fields, where a CO2 production growth leading to the necessity of replacing all production facilities would probably make the project fail economically.
For the particular field analyzed in this article, the deployment of a production unit able to inject CO2 from an external source in an undrained region of the reservoir, hydraulically connected to an area already in production, would bring benefits not only to the region where the injection would occur but also to the adjacent area. The CO2 migration to the neighboring area decreases the levels of CO2 to be processed in the new platform plant, allowing its technical and economic feasibility, as well as increases the recovery factor of the adjoining area, without reaching levels of CO2 and gas flow rates beyond the limits of the plant already in operation. Furthermore, the reservoir's capacity to retain CO2, acting as a carbon sink, is also evaluated.
This study thus presents an integrated workflow for an optimal CO2 injection project design, considering not only the benefits in terms of recovery in the target area of the project, but analyzing the impacts and risks to surrounding areas.
The continued increase in oil demand associated with the growing concern about the greenhouse gases has been an additional driver for CO2 injection into oil reservoirs. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), in saline aquifers for example, has been increasingly studied and has started to be applied due to higher environmental concern. However, the investment necessary for this process is quite high, without a significant financial return for the industry. On the other hand, the use of CO2 as an EOR strategy, which also acts as a carbon storage method thanks to the fact that great part of the injected CO2 is retained in the reservoir, can bring a very significant revenue gain by increasing the recovery in oil fields, especially in mature reservoirs. Thus, as CO2 EOR can put together the goals of profitability and environmental responsibility, it is likely to become a successful path to be followed in the near future in offshore oil industry as it is already onshore.
Nevertheless, the application of this EOR method usually occurs at a later stage in the development of a field in which the operating facilities were normally not specified to manage high levels of CO2. This means reservoir engineering analysis has to be done closely associated with production equipment aspects and constraints, so that a high CO2 production growth leading to the necessity of replacing production facilities is avoided. Otherwise, the project would probably fail from the economic point of view. This study thus presents an integrated workflow for an optimal CO2 injection project design, considering not only the benefits in terms of oil recovery and CO2 storage, but analyzing the impacts and risks of implementing this kind of method.
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