Effect of sand lens size and hydraulic fractures orientation on tight gas reservoirs ultimate recovery
- Narisara Kantanong | Hassan Bahrami (Curtin University) | Reza Rezaee | Md Mofazzal Hossain (Curtin University) | Amir Nasiri
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Middle East Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, 23-25 January, Abu Dhabi, UAE
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 2 Well Completion, 5.8.1 Tight Gas
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Low permeability and complexities of rock formation in tight gas resources make it more complicated to predict well production performance and estimate gas recovery. To produce from the unconventional resources in the case that formation rock is not sensitive to damage caused by liquid invasion, hydraulic fracturing is the most common stimulation treatment to improve the production to the excepted economically rate.
In term of reservoir geometry, tight sand formations are normally stacks of isolated lenses of sand bodies that are separated by shale layers. Each sand lens varies in shape and size and acts as a trap for original hydrocarbon accumulations. The sand lenses parameters such as length and width can play important role in controlling gas recovery from hydraulically fractured tight gas reservoirs.
This study shows the effect of drainage pattern of the lenticular sand bodies on production performance and ultimate gas recovery in tight gas formations. Analytical and numerical simulation approaches are used in order to understand the effect of hydraulic fracture parameters and also attribution of sand lens size and shape to the drainage pattern and gas recovery in hydraulically fractured tight sand gas reservoirs.
The results highlighted that in tight gas with massive hydraulic fractures, sand lens size in the direction perpendicular to hydraulic fracture wings has the major impact on gas recovery. Sand lens size in the direction parallel to hydraulic fracture wings does not have significant effect on gas recovery. When the sand lenses are isolated and small in size, from a single well-enhancement perspective, the gas recovery will increase significantly by performing massive hydraulic fracturing
through isolated lenses.
The effects of sand lens geometry and hydraulic fracture parameters on ultimate recovery of tight gas reservoirs are reviewed in the following discussion. This section looks at the operational considerations relating to the effects of stratigraphic compartmentalization of sand stacks. Tight gas sand reservoirs and their complex stratigraphy and rock parameters create difficulties for the prediction of well production performance and ultimate gas recovery. To produce from unconventional gas resources, in the case that formation rock is not sensitive to damage caused by liquid invasion, hydraulic fracturing is the most common stimulation method used to access undamaged reservoir and to contact multiple sand lenses that might otherwise be missed in a vertical well completion.
In terms of reservoir geometry, tight sand formations are described as stacks of isolated lenses of sand that can be separated by shale layers. Each sand lens can vary in shape and size and can act as an individual trap for original hydrocarbon accumulations. The sand lenses dimensions will play an important role in controlling gas recovery from hydraulically fractured tight gas reservoirs.
The importance of hydraulic fractures on productivity in tight gas sandstone reservoirs is well documented (Northrop and Frohne, 1990). Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in tight gas reservoirs are important in reservoir management strategies to increase production rates and recovery factors. If massive hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments are performed successfully, infill well development spacing and the number of producing wells would be reduced (Amini et al, 2007).
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