Seismic-to-Simulation for Unconventional Reservoir Development
- Craig L. Cipolla (Schlumberger) | Tony Fitzpatrick (Schlumberger) | Michael John Williams (Schlumberger) | Utpal Kumar Ganguly (Schlumberger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Characterisation and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, 9-11 October, Abu Dhabi, UAE
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.1.7 Seismic Processing and Interpretation, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.1.8 Seismic Modelling, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 2.5.1 Fracture design and containment, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.5.8 History Matching, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.3.4 Scale, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 2.5.4 Multistage Fracturing, 2 Well Completion
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The completion strategy and hydraulic fracture stimulation are the keys to economic success in unconventional reservoirs. Therefore, reservoir engineering workflows in unconventional reservoirs need to focus on completion and stimulation optimization as much as they do well placement and spacing. This well-level focus requires the integration of hydraulic fracture modeling software and the ability to utilize measurements specific to unconventional reservoirs. This paper details a comprehensive integration of software, data, and specialized measurements specific to unconventional reservoirs that allows efficient full-cycle seismic-to-simulation evaluations.
It is very important to properly model hydraulic fracture propagation and hydrocarbon production mechanisms in unconventional reservoirs, a significant departure from conventional reservoir simulation workflows. Seismic-to-simulation workflows in unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracture models that properly simulate complex fracture propagation which is common in many unconventional reservoirs, algorithms to automatically develop discrete reservoir simulation grids to rigorously model the hydrocarbon production from complex hydraulic fractures, and the ability to efficiently integrate microseismic measurements with geological and geophysical data. The introduction of complex hydraulic fracture propagation models now allows these work-flows to be implemented.
This paper documents an efficient, yet rigorous, integration of geological and geophysical data with complex fracture models, single-well completion and stimulation focused reservoir simulation, and microseismic measurements. The implementation of a common software platform and the development of specialized gridding algorithms allow complex hydraulic fracture models to be calibrated using microseismic measurements in the context of local geology and structure. The complex hydraulic fracture geometry, including the distribution of proppant, is automatically gridded to a common Earth Model for single-well reservoir simulation.
The software platform, newly developed complex hydraulic fracture models, and automated gridding algorithms are illustrated in a case history from the Barnett Shale unconventional gas play.
The primary difference between seismic-to-simulation workflows for unconventional reservoirs compared to conventional reservoirs is the scale of the simulation; unconventional reservoir simulation is focused on the well and the specifics of the completion (i.e. - the hydraulic fracture treatments), many times with a very detailed geologic description. Conversely, seismic-to-simulation workflows for conventional reservoirs focus on large-scale reservoir behavior (e.g. - multi-well and full field simulation models) and typically "up-scale?? the fine details of both the completion and reservoir heterogeneities such as natural fractures. Although upscaling of some reservoir properties may still be required when modeling unconventional reservoirs, the hydraulic fracture must be rigorously modeled. Without coupling the hydraulic fracture geometry and conductivity with subsequent well performance, it can be difficult to evaluate well performance and improve future completions (Mayerhofer et al. 2006, Cipolla 2009). The "seismic?? portion of the seismic-to-simulation workflow for unconventional reservoir is also focused much more on the well-scale variations than large-scale field-wide variations, as local variations in structure and rock properties can significantly affect hydraulic fracture growth, stress regime, natural fracture distribution and orientation; all of which can dramatically impact well performance.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||23|