Development of a New Foam EOR Model From Laboratory and Field Data of the Naturally Fractured Cantarell Field
- Fraser A. Skoreyko (Computer Modelling Group Inc) | Antonio Pino Villavicencio (Pemex E&P) | Hector Rodriguez Prada (Independent Contractor for Pemex) | Quoc Phuc Nguyen (U. of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Characterisation and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, 9-11 October, Abu Dhabi, UAE
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2011. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.3.1 Flow in Porous Media, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 5.8.6 Naturally Fractured Reservoir, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 4.3.4 Scale, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.6.5 Tracers, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 1,262 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 28.00|
As much of the oil in the Akal field of the Cantarell complex is contained in the low permeability oil wet matrix, foam injection has been proposed as a method to control fluid mobility in the fracture, with the added benefit of transporting surfactant into the matrix so that additional oil can be liberated through a reduction of interfacial tension between oil and water. Presented in this paper is the work flow undertaken during an extensive study of all available laboratory experiments
and pilot single well foam injection tests. Laboratory experiments ranged from simple water plus surfactant imbibition tests and surfactant flooding tests, to more complex foam flooding in split core experiments and co-injection of surfactant and gas for generation of foam in-situ. There were three field pilot single well foam injection tests that were included in this analysis that were of the huff-and-puff design.
This extensive analysis was done with the aid of numerical simulation that resulted in the development of a novel foam regeneration model that handles both mobility control and interfacial tension reduction effects. It is shown that with identical foam parameters, this model matches all laboratory core flood studies as well as the field pilot tests, showing that this foam model is capable of predicting foam performance in both laboratory and field settings. The foam components can be chosen to be defined as either gaseous or aqueous components and this choice is shown to affect the impact of capillary pressure on foam flow into the matrix.
Also discussed in this paper are details of how the foam behaves when injected into a gas saturated zone where the foam combines with in-situ gas, resulting in higher foam qualities than was injected. It is demonstrated that foam mobility control as a function of foam quality is an important aspect for matching field performance. The significance of correct foam density calculations is also discussed using field scale models.
The work done to match the many laboratory and field scale foam tests resulted in a significant improvement of the understanding of foam degradation, regeneration, permeability blockage, and flow in porous media and the phenomena responsible for generating incremental oil.
Foam as a means for mobility control has long been recognized as a promising aid to EOR processes (Bernard and Holm 1964, Holm 1968, Lawson and Reisberg 1980, Rossen 1995, Hanssen et al. 1994). There have been many field tests of steam foam (Hirasaki 1989; Patzek 1996) and CO2 foam. One of the most successful demonstrations of foam mobility control was in the Snorre field (Blaker et al. 2002). Foam was used as mobility control for surfactant aquifer remediation at Hill Air Force Base in Utah (Hirasaki et al. 1997, 2000). Foam was used as mobility control for alkaline surfactant flooding in China (Zhang
et al. 2000; Wang et al. 2001). A favorable property of foam in heterogeneous porous media is that in-situ foam generation will occur in the high permeability zones first, thereby causing more fluid to flow to lower permeability zones. This behavior was confirmed by Casteel and Djabbarah (1988), Llave et al. (1990), and Zerhboub et al. (1994). When rocks of different permeabilities are in capillary contact and cross-flow between these zones can occur, such as the case with fractured systems, foam moves with equal velocity in both the low and high permeability regions (Bertin et al. (1999), Nguyen et al. 2005).
These encouraging results suggest that foam injection into the naturally fractured Cantarell reservoir could be both technically and economically successful, but it requires careful design and process optimization. Therefore, a predictive numerical model of foam displacement is required for project evaluation and process design. The studies began with a review of the foam modelling issues and available methods for modelling foam flow, plus a review of the numerous existing laboratory studies available for Cantarell for the purpose of calibrating the numerical foam model.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||15|