Testing the Combination of High Frequency Surface and Downhole Drilling Mechanics and Dynamics Data Under a Variety of Drilling Conditions.
- William George Lesso (Schlumberger) | Maja Ignova (Schlumberger) | Firas Zeineddine (Schlumberger) | James M. Burks (National Oilwell Varco) | James Brent Welch (National Oilwell Varco)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, 1-3 March, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2011. SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition
- 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 1.2.2 Drilling Optimisation, 1.6.1 Drilling Operation Management, 7.2.2 Risk Management Systems, 1.5 Drill Bits, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 1.12.1 Measurement While Drilling, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 1.12.2 Logging While Drilling, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 1.6.3 Drilling Optimisation, 1.4.1 BHA Design, 1.12.6 Drilling Data Management and Standards, 1.6.1 Drilling Operation Management
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Understanding the behavior of the drill bit, bottomhole assembly (BHA), and drillstring in drilling operations is difficult without accurate measurements of tensile load, torque, pressure, and various vibrations both at surface and downhole. A variety of methods have been employed to compress measurements obtained downhole in order to transmit them to the surface with measurement-while-drilling (MWD) mud-pulse telemetry. During the last ten years, some success has been
achieved in making these measurements, recording them, and then retrieving the data at surface upon the end of the bit run. Meanwhile, the comparable measurements at surface have limitations in terms of accuracy, calibration, and dampening. An instrumented surface sub (ISS) has been developed that replaces the saver sub at the bottom of the top drive on a rig's traveling assembly. It measures in real time at the top of the drillstring, using accurate and calibrated sensors,
tension/compression, torque, rotational speed in revolutions per minute (RPM), and surface pump pressure, among other parameters. These measurements, made at 400 Hz, are not dampened by the drill line and sheaves. A drilling mechanics module (DMM) sub that is part of the BHA has also been developed, which provides downhole measurements including, but not limited to, tension, torque, RPM, internal and annular pressure, at frequencies between 200 and 2,000 Hz. Additionally, along-string vibration measurements are provided using memory only devices.
To evaluate both of these downhole and surface drilling data acquisition tools, a test was conducted in June 2010 at the Schlumberger directional drilling test facility near Cameron, Texas. Four different BHAs were run to evaluate downhole behavior and collect data using milled-tooth and PDC bits while directional drilling in surface rotary mode as well as with steerable motors. This paper presents some of the wide-range findings regarding the use and analysis of the data gathered in terms of static drilling mechanics, as well as dynamic drillstring behaviors and downhole vibrations.
Drilling operations have historically monitored surface drilling data as a tool to make the necessary adjustments in a drilling activity to maximize performance. The basic measurements are torque, tension or hookload, mud pressure, flow rates, and rotational speed (RPMs). The frequencies at which these data sets are gathered range from 1 to 15 Hz. Modern drilling rigs utilize sensor data obtained using technologies that are hydraulic-based, electronic-based, or a combination of both. The data may be displayed on a simple hydraulic gauge, or conversely, viewed on an electronic human-machine interface (HMI) display. The same measurements are made downhole, but the frequency of the data gathered is limited by bandwidth in mudpulse telemetry. Generally, large quantities of higher frequency data can be post-processed only after the BHA has been brought back to the surface. Experience has shown that data of higher accuracy and frequency is needed to diagnose problems and optimize drilling.
Current drilling dynamics monitoring systems are generally not understood by field personnel, and at times, are poorly implemented. Moreover, there is little integration between surface and downhole data streams other than to plot, on the same graph, surface and downhole torque, tension, and pressure. Several predictive models for lateral vibrations have been implemented, but there are few routine cases of models predicting actual vibration modes.
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