The Dynamic Aspect of Formation-Storage Use for CO2 Sequestration
- Mario Winkler (Shell Intl. E&P Co.) | R. Abernathy (Shell Intl. E&P Co.) | M. Nicolo (Shell Intl. E&P Co.) | H. Huang (Shell Intl. E&P Co.) | A. Wang (Shell Intl. E&P Co.) | S. Zhang (Shell Intl. E&P Co.) | C. Clark (Shell) | Syrie Crouch (Shell) | H. De Groot (Shell) | R. El Mahdy (Shell) | M. Smith (Shell) | S. Malik (Shell) | S. Bourne (Shell) | R. Pierpont (Shell) | V. Hugonet (Shell)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE International Conference on CO2 Capture, Storage, and Utilization, 10-12 November, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.10.1 CO2 Capture and Sequestration, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.5.11 Formation Testing (e.g., Wireline, LWD), 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5.3 Scaling Methods, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 6.5.3 Waste Management, 5.1.7 Seismic Processing and Interpretation, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 4.1.9 Heavy Oil Upgrading, 3 Production and Well Operations
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The Athabasca Oil Sands Project Joint Venture (AOSP JV) owners - Shell Canada Energy (Shell), Chevron Canada Limited (Chevron) and Marathon Oil Sands L.P. (Marathon) - are advancing front-end development plans of a fully integrated carbon capture, pipeline and storage project in Alberta called the Quest CCS Project. A Final Investment Decision for Quest is scheduled for 2012. Quest is designed as a fully integrated CCS project in the oil sands sector involving CO2 capture at the Scotford upgrader near Fort Saskatchewan, pipeline transportation northeast from Scotford and CO2 storage in a deep saline formation zone, the Basal Cambrian Sand. Over the expected lifetime of 25 years, the project will capture and store up to 1.1 Mt of CO2 per year from the steam methane reformer units at the existing Scotford upgrader and at the upgrader's expansion currently under construction
Conventional volumetric methods for the pore space assessment of CO2 storage, such as the guidance provided by the 2008 Carbon Sequestration ATLAS of the United States and Canada, are good tools in estimating the pore space available, while also considering empirical DOE ranges for storage efficiency, such as area and vertical sweep efficiency, gravity contact efficiency and microscopic displacement efficiency. Such assessment would suggest a CO2 storage capacity of the Basal Cambrian Sand at Quest of approximately 7 Mt per township (6 miles x 6 miles). However, such an estimate is of a static nature, not taking into account dynamic system constraints such as required injection rates, bottom-hole pressure constraints and associated well count and well spacing, including pressure interference and regional pore pressure increase.
Dynamic reservoir simulation has been performed, for a variety of subsurface realizations, covering the full range of current subsurface uncertainties, with the aim to optimize the development while also estimating the required pore space for CO2 storage. Following the concept of linking the required pore space to pore pressure increase, rather than CO2 plume extension, resulted in a significant reduction of pore space utilization in the Basal Cambrian Sand from the initial 7 Mt per township to only 0.67 Mt per township and will have a potential impact on additional CCS developments in the region.
On the 31st March 2009 Shell Canada Energy, on behalf of the Athabasca Oil Sands Project (AOSP JV) submitted a Full Project Proposal (FPP) to the Alberta Department of Energy (ADOE) to develop the Quest CCS Project. The submission was prepared within a CCS framework set out by the ADOE. The basis of the Quest Project is to capture and compress 1.1 Mtpa of CO2 from the Shell Scotford bitumen upgraders and transport it via a new pipeline and wells to an underground storage complex located approximately 70 km from Scotford (Figure 1). The preferred geological formation for storage is the Basal Cambrian Sands (BCS) highly saline aquifer which, at 2 km depth in this area, is the deepest sedimentary formation in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB).
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