Drilling And Completion Challenges And Remedies Of CO2 Injected Wells With Emphasis To Mitigate Well Integrity Issues
- Md. Mofazzal Hossain (Curtin U. of Technology) | Mohammed Amro (Technical University of Bergakademie Freiberg)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, 18-20 October, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2 Well completion, 4.6 Natural Gas, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.3.1 Hydrates, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 1.6.10 Running and Setting Casing, 7.4.3 Market analysis /supply and demand forecasting/pricing, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 6.5.1 Air Emissions, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.10.1 CO2 Capture and Sequestration, 6.5.7 Climate Change, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.3.3 Wellhead integrity, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 4.3.4 Scale, 3 Production and Well Operations, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 5.10.2 Natural Gas Storage, 1.2.1 Wellbore integrity
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CO2 emission is generally accepted to be one of the prime causes of global warming and climate change issues. In order to combat this global warming by reducing CO2 emissions, there are numerous pilot projects developed worldwide, where injection of CO2 for sequestration/storage, and Enhanced Oil/Gas Recovery (EOR/EGR) have been ongoing for many years. The well design and completion consideration of such CO2 injected wells, especially pertaining to well integrity, selection of downhole completion equipments, design of pressure containment for high pressure and highly corrosive environment, differs in many ways compared to typical injection wells in the oil field or natural gas storage projects. There are various well integrity failures, which are reported in the literature during drilling and completion of such wells either for EOR or CO2 sequestration projects. The monitoring of CO2 migration within the wells with time is also essential.
In this study, the principle mechanisms involving well integrity issues including caprock and cementing integrity in CO2 injected wells are investigated at various operating conditions, based on comprehensive review of various field cases as published in the literature. The critical factors associated with well design failures, pressure containment, corrosion issues, tubing leakage, cementing problems, and selection of downhole equipments for well completion etc are identified. Based on the study, precise screening criteria are developed that enables the design and completion of CO2 injected wells for EOR and CO2 sequestration; thereby minimizing the chance of integrity failures.
Results for different conditions will be presented and discussed to provide guide lines for mitigating the numbers of theses challenges with an emphasis to the successful design and completion of such wells. The key factors concerning monitoring of CO2 migration with time will be discussed.
CO2 injection either for sequestration or Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) becomes very popular and interested topic among the scientific communities, since it's believed to be provided douple benefits: (i) reduction of carbon emission in order to combat the global climate change by capturing and injecting CO2 into the underground storage (known as CO2 sequestration); and (ii) increasing the recovery of proven reserve through EOR method to meet world energy demand by injecting CO2 into depleted oil and gas reservoirs. The concept of CO2 injection as a means of EOR has been implemented in many different oil and gas reservoir worldwide since early 1970's (Haigh, 2009). The first large scale CO2 injection based EOR project SACROC (Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee) field in West Texas has been in operation since 1972 (Seatman et al, 2009). The key success of long term storage in depleted reservoirs depends on the integrity of both the formations (e.g fault seal capacity) and the wellbores. The formation integrity issue is beyond the current study. This study concentrated on wellbore integrity issues only.
The wellbore integrity issues have been identified in many studies as a key risk factor to be considered while evaluating the applicability of CO2 sequestration (e.g., Metz et al., 2005; Bachu and Celia, 2007; Viswanathan et al., 2008; Oldenburg et al., 2009).), and CO2 injection based EOR projects especially for the abandoned wells that are exposed to CO2-rich environment for a long period of time. Factors that influence the wellbore integrity are mainly due to poor completion and abandonment of the wells; and the long-term stability of wellbore materials in a CO2-rich environment. The long-term stability of wellbores materials in a CO2-rich environment is a complex function of material properties and reservoir properties, such as aquifer water (brine), rock compositions, CO2 pressure, and formation pressure, temperature gradients, and the rates of material reaction with CO2. Therefore the well design and completion consideration of CO2 injected wells differs in many ways compared to typical injection wells in the oil field or natural gas storage projects.
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