CO2 Sequestration Potential in Missouri Shallow Sandstone Aquifers
- Fang Yang (Missouri U of Science & Tech) | Baojun Bai (Missouri U of Science & Tech) | Dazhen Tang | Shari Dunn-Norman (Missouri U of Science & Tech) | David Wronkiewicz (Missouri U of Science & Tech)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, 8-10 June, Beijing, China
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2010. Society of Petroleum Engineers
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The effect of completion techniques and reservoir heterogeneity on CO2 storage and injectivity in saline aquifers has been studied using a compositional reservoir simulator CMG-GEM. Two reservoir models were built using data extracted from publications, to represent a deep saline aquifer and a shallow aquifer. The effect of completion methods, including partial perforation of the reservoir net pay (partial completion), well geometry, orientation, location and length, on CO2 storage are discussed. Heterogeneity effect has been addressed considering three parameters: mean permeability, vertical to horizontal permeability ratio, and permeability variation. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using design of experiments (DOE) to determine the dominant factors affecting CO2 storage capacity and CO2 injectivity. Simulation results show that completing all layers, using horizontal wells set in upper layers with a length around 250-300 m are the most favorable choices for CO2 storage capacity in the aquifer examined.
Mean permeability affects CO2 storage capacity and injectivity the most; kv/kh affects CO2 injectivity storage capacity more than permeability variation, Vk. More CO2 can be stored in the heterogeneous reservoirs with low mean permeability; however, high injectivity can be achieved in the uniform reservoirs with high mean permeability.
Carbon sequestration in saline aquifers has been identified as a promising method of reducing atmospheric CO2 in response to growing concerns over climate change. Saline aquifers are attractive for such sequestration because of their large capacity and broad distribution (IPCC, 2005; Hesse et al., 2006; Bryant, 2007; Gibson-Poole et al., 2007). Many projects have been carried out and have demonstrated the viability of CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers since the early 1990s (Pruess et al., 2003; Jikich et al., 2003; Sengul, 2006).
Saline aquifers are defined as porous and permeable reservoir rocks that contain saline fluid in the pore spaces between the rock grains. Carbon dioxide can be trapped in saline aquifers through a combination of physical and chemical processes, which can be classified into structural and stratigraphic trapping, solubility trapping, mineral trapping, and hydrodynamic trapping (Koide et al., 1992; Gunter et al., 1993; Holtz, 2002; Flett et al., 2005; Bachu et al., 2007). When injected, CO2 moves upward to fill the geological traps, parts of CO2 dissolves, some interacts with formation water and rock minerals, and some trapped by capillary forces as a residual phase.
The potential of CO2 storage in saline aquifers is largely determined by aquifer properties (Cinar et al., 2007), and much work has been performed to determine the effect of aquifer properties on CO2 storage. The properties include seal area, formation dip, reservoir heterogeneity, porosity and permeability, temperature, pressure, salinity, and mineralogy (Kumar et al., 2005; Bachu et al., 2007; Hurter et al., 2007; Ülker et al., 2007; Yang et al, 2010). Among them, heterogeneity plays an important role because the spatial correlation of permeability determines the preferential CO2 flow paths and the complex migration paths resulted from heterogeneity enhance solution and residual gas trapping (Bryant et al., 2006). Although there are studies on mean permeability, the vertical to horizontal permeability ratio, and permeability variation, those studies were reported separately and only focus on deep saline aquifers.
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