Case Study on Prefromed Particle Gel for In-Depth Fluid Diversion
- Baojun Bai (Missouri U of Science & Tech) | Fusheng Huang (Daqing Oilfield Co. Ltd.) | Yuzhang Liu (Research Inst. Petr. Expl/Dev) | Randall Scott Seright (New Mexico Tech) | Yefei Wang (China University of Petroleum)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, 20-23 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2008. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.4.5 Conformance Improvement, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.6.5 Tracers, 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex), 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 1.8 Formation Damage, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.2.2 Perforating, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 3 Production and Well Operations, 3.2.6 Produced Water Management, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing
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The paper describes preformed particle gel (PPG) treatments for in-depth fluid diversion in four injection wells located in the north of Lamadian, Daqing oilfield, China. Lamadian is sandstone oilfield with thick net zones. The selected four injectors have 46 connected producers with average water cut of 95.4% before treatment. The paper reports the detailed information for the four well treatments, including well candidate selection criteria, PPG treatment optimization, real-time monitoring result during PPG injection and reservoir performance after treatment. In addition, a discussion is made to analyze why so large amount of large particles can be injected into the reservoir. Large volume of PPG suspension with concentrations of 2,000-2,500 mg/L and particle sizes of 0.06-3.0 mm was injected into each well and it took about 4 months to finish each injection. The injection volume ranges from 11,458 to 17,625 m3 per well with a total of 56,269 m3 of PPG suspension (295,680 lbs of dried PPG) for the four wells. During PPG injection, the increase of the wellhead pressure was quite stable and no PPG was produced from adjacent producers. Recorded real-time monitoring Data about injection pressure and rate, PPG particle size change during PPG injection provide invaluable information to analysis the possibility of fracture/channel in the reservoir. The treatments resulted in an oil increase of 34.8 t/d and average water cut decrease of 0.94% within 10 months after treatments.
Excess water production has become a major problem for oilfeld operators as more and more reservoirs mature due to long term of water flooding. Higher levels of water production result in increased levels of corrosion and scale, increased load on fluid-handling facilities, increased environmental concerns, and eventually well shut-in. Consequently, producing zones are often abandoned in an attempt to avoid water contact, even when the intervals still maitain large volumes of remaining hydrocarbons. Controlling water production has become more and more important to the oil industry.
Reservoir heterogeneity is the single most important reason for low oil recovery and early excess water production. Most oilfields in China, which were discovered in continental sedimentary basins, are characterized by complex geological conditions and high permeability contrast inside reservoirs. To maintain reservoir pressure, these reservoirs were developed by water flooding from early stage of their development. Many of them have been hydraulicallyfractured, intentionally or unintentionally, or have been channeled due to mineral dissolution and production during waterflooding (Liu, 2006). Reservoirs with induced fractures or high-permeability channels are quite common in the mature oilfields.
Gel treatment is a cost-effective method to improve sweep efficiency in reservoirs and to reduce excess water production during oil and gas production. Traditionally, gels are usually placed near wellbore of production or injection wells to correct inter-layer heterogeneity or heal fracture. However, the remaining oil on the top of a thick heterogeneous layer has become the most important target to improve oil recovery as a reservoir matures. In-depth diversion gels (Seright, 2004, Frampton, 2004, Sydansk, 2004, 2005, Cheung, 2007, Rousseau, 2005, Bai, 2007) have been reported to penetrate deeply into higher permeability zones or fractures and seal or partially seal them off thus creating high flow resistance in former, watered-out, high permeability portion of the zones. When successful, these gel systems divert a portion of the injection water into areas not previously swept by water shown in Fig. 1.
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