A New Technical Standard Procedure to Measure stimulation and Gravelpack Fluid Leakoff under Static Conditions
- Mahmoud Asadi (ProTechnics) | Glenn S. Penny (CESI Chemical) | Brian Roland Ainley (Ametek Chandler Engineering) | David J. Archacki (Weatherford International Ltd.) | Fred van der Bas (Shell Intl. E&P BV) | Peter Anthony Bern (BP Research) | Harold Dean Brannon (BJ Services Co. USA) | Sandra Cobianco (Eni Exploration & Production Div.) | Ali Ghalambor (U. of Louisiana at Lafayette) | Paul M. McElfresh (Baker Hughes) | David Milton-Tayler (FracTech Ltd) | Mark A. Parker (Halliburton Energy Services Group) | Subhash Nandlal Shah (U. of Oklahoma)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- European Formation Damage Conference, 30 May-1 June, Scheveningen, The Netherlands
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2007. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 3.2.5 Produced Sand / Solids Management and Control, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 2.4.5 Gravel pack design & evaluation, 3.2.4 Acidising, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 2.7.1 Completion Fluids, 2.2.3 Fluid Loss Control, 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
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A group of industry experts have compiled their years of experiences in developing a new technical standard to measure stimulation and gravel-pack fluid leakoff under static conditions. This method details step-by-step procedure for making fluids and measuring leakoff under static conditions. Stimulation and gravel-pack fluids are defined for the purpose of this technical standard as fluids used to enhance production from oil and gas wells by fracturing or acidizing and fluids used to place filtration media to control formation sand production from oil and gas wells, respectively. The procedure considers filter paper medium, natural core and synthetic core as the three filtering options. The paper also includes step-by-step example calculations of viscosity controlled leakoff coefficient and wall building coefficient.
Filtration control of stimulation and gravel pack fluids is key for the appropriate fluid design and engineering. Failure to optimize fluid loss can lead to premature screen-outs or inefficient fluid displacement. This may ultimately jeopardize overall well objectives.
In 2002 a Task Group was formed to develop a standard testing method and procedure to measure and quantify static fluid loss from stimulation and gravel-pack fluids. The Task Group comprised a cross-functional team of operators, suppliers and academics which worked under the guidance and direction of an ISO Committee. The focus was to develop simple, yet accurate methods, which could be readily implemented in the laboratory or the field. This work resulted in the development of a new Standard ISO 13503-41. This Standard provides for consistent methodology to measure fluid loss of stimulation and gravel-pack fluid under static conditions. Stimulation fluids are defined for the purpose of this document as fluids used to enhance production from oil and gas wells by fracturing or acidizing. Also, gravel-pack fluids are defined as fluids used to place filtration media to control formation sand production from oil and gas wells.
The objective of this document, which is based on the ISO 13503-4, is to provide a standard procedure for measuring stimulation and gravel-pack fluid leakoff under static conditions2. This standard procedure excludes the use of fluids that react with porous media.
Certain aspects of sample preparation and handling may affect properties of a fluid. During all procedures, steps shall be taken to minimize air entrainment into the fluid. The procedure used to prepare the fluid sample shall be documented as follows:
a) Description and/or composition of the base fluid;
b) Base fluid pre-treatment such as filtration;
c) Preparation of the fluid shall be described, starting with the base fluid, such as deionized water, tap water source, seawater (location), or type of organic fluids;
d) Identification of mixing apparatus, container volume, and total volume of fluid prepared;
e) Time of mixing (should include mixing time(s) at one or more mixer speed(s));
f) Identification of each component and amount added;
g) The order and method of addition of each component;
h) Aging or holding time at temperature, if required, prior to tests;
i) Test temperature;
j) pH (for aqueous fluids, where applicable);
k) All other aspects of the fluid preparation, which are known to affect the outcome of measurement, should be reported.
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