Identification and Analysis of Fields for Waterflood-Enhanced Recovery Efforts
- Rod Hall (GrailQuest Corporation) | Dwight M. Ross (Dwight M Ross Drilling Co. Inc.) | Gregory A. Stevens (Durango Resources) | Steve F. Meuhlberger (Dwight M Ross Drilling Co. Inc.) | Bill Wilson (Dwight M Ross Drilling Co. Inc.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, 11-13 October, Canton, Ohio, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.7.5 Economic Evaluations, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.6.9 Production Forecasting, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation
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Changing economic conditions allow for a new examination of mature and abandoned fields to identify oil that is now economically recoverable (reserves). In mature oil producing basins there are many inactive or limited stripper production fields, all potential waterflood candidates.
We present a methodology of identifying such fields, quantifying the incremental waterflood production, and creating a field development plan. Production forecasts are generated in a timely and cost effective manner for development scenarios with Time Dynamic Volumetric Balancing methods.
The field reviewed and used as an example is the Belcherville Field. It is a Caddo Conglomerate, located in Montague County, Texas, discovered in 1946. Developed in the 1950's, 9 wells produced 3 mmbo of primary production before being abandoned in 1967. Production was from the channel deposits of the Caddo formation that are draped over a gentle anticline. A comparative study of 7 other fields in the same trend indicates waterflooding can recover and additional 84% of primary recoverable oil.
Based on the authors experience in Texas we put forward the following methodology. It should be noted that this methodology only provides a general outline and must be adapted and customized to each new project. Given that each project is unique and presents different opportunities and challenges we do not believe a ‘standard' methodology is feasible.
Our proposed methodology is described with a set of general steps and a set of factors. Based on our experience we offer percentage weights for the listed factors, these weights were from the presented Belcherville field.
Waterflood prospects require several factors to be analyzed. The following list of example factors includes the major ones in the Belcherville prospect qualification and their corresponding weight. Several of these factors can independently force a "no-go?? decision on the project.
Given the individualized nature of each project, it is almost certain that the various factors and weights will change. Often these factors are not analyzed in the given order; the timing is usually dictated by the availability of data.
Prospect Identification: The prospect must be in a geologic domain of proven successful projects. We often satisfy this criterion by limiting our search and analysis to old fields.
Prospect Qualification: The operator must be (or become) familiar with the producing area. Often research, such as a comparative field analysis may be necessary to satisfy this criterion. It should be noted that there must be sufficient and reliable geologic, production, and field data available. In many mature fields the data is not perfect but the confidence level in the existing data has to be fairly high.
Economic Analysis: An analysis (often performed during several different stages of the project) of possible lease hold and operations costs vs. the amount of oil to be recovered and the forecast price per barrel is conducted. The results assist in providing one method of ranking various projects. By employing a production forecasting method, such as ReservoirGrail, this analysis becomes more precise and more useful.
Transforming the Prospect to a Program: It is vital to have reliable production (oil, gas, and water production for every well or at least every lease) and geologic (field extent and heterogeneity) data in order to create a reservoir model. Fulfilling this data requirement can be costly; however not putting forth this effort introduces the risk of being much more costly. Based on the reservoir model and the knowledge of the area a redevelopment plan must be devised, modeled and refined. At this stage a second more detailed economic analysis is generally conducted.
Implementation: Proper implementation of the redevelopment plan is completely dependant on the quality and accuracy of the reservoir model (and the supporting information).
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