Basic FCAW electrodes of the EXXXT-5 designation offer excellent toughness, however, the operation of most T-5 electrodes is very harsh with high levels of spatter. Furthermore, the weld pool tends to be too fluid for out-of-position welding. Rutile-based FCAW electrodes, such as AWS EXXXT-1, offer smooth operation and good all-positional capabilities. Yet, because the weld deposits tend to be relatively high in oxygen, impact toughness will typically be much lower than what can be achieved with a basic slag system. Furthermore, as weld metal tensile strength increases, it is common to see a drop-off in impact toughness. Consequently, many users will opt for EXXX18 SMAW electrodes to achieve good toughness and all-positional capabilities, thereby sacrificing productivity. This paper details a new approach for producing flux-cored electrodes that provide excellent toughness and exceptionally low weld-metal oxygen, with good operability and out-of-position welding capabilities.
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