Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Analysis of Dynamic Load Deformation in Geomaterials
- Jamie Blanche (Heriot-Watt University) | Jim Buckman (Heriot-Watt University) | Helen Lewis (Heriot-Watt University) | David Flynn (Heriot-Watt University) | Gary Couples (Heriot-Watt University)
- Document ID
- Offshore Technology Conference
- Offshore Technology Conference, 4-7 May, Houston, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- 2020. Offshore Technology Conference
- 0.2 Wellbore Design, 5 Reservoir Desciption & Dynamics, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 2.4 Hydraulic Fracturing, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 0.2.2 Geomechanics, 3 Production and Well Operations
- Geomechanics, Non-Invasive Measurement, FMCW Sensing, Deformation, Failure Prediction
- 16 in the last 30 days
- 93 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
This research advances the use of microwave radar to assess geomaterial properties by the novel application of frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar to uniaxially loaded sandstones in the laboratory. Here contrasts in reflection coefficient are interpreted to represent microfracture formation and cross-linking under compressive loading prior to through-going sample failure. The Darney and Red St. Bees sandstones are characterized via optical microscope, X-ray radiography and tomography and by SEM methods and are tested for FMCW response under uniaxial compressive loads, with results showing that FMCW interrogation in the K-band is highly sensitive to the progression of bulk axial shortening and material bulk composition. The results reported here present an external, non-contact radio-frequency sensing modality using microwave radar to evaluate the samples as they are deformed. These samples are sandstones chosen for their distinct petrophysical properties and their significant differences in textural heterogeneity and anisotropy. This novel sensing application yields repeatable and consistent results, which are currently verified for four laboratory-deformed sandstone samples, where characteristic spikes in reflection coefficient, Γ, are observed. These spikes, which have not been observed in any other sensing modality, and occurring approximately 20 seconds prior to macroscopic yield, were observed in all samples tested. This research offers new insights into the evolution of deformation and failure in a porous geomaterial, here sandstone, and represents a departure from the current practices of post failure analysis. The effects of these new measurands (and how they change as a function of load) can be used to recognize more clearly the step-wise evolution of the sample progression to bulk failure and potentially be developed to provide a precursor warning of imminent sample failure. By increasing understanding of the damage development this can help refine the associated geomechanical theory. Better theory underpinning better calculations and simulations of a geomechanical reservoir issue can be critical in managing key seal and trap properties of a reservoir, enabling the operator to make improved operational decisions, increasing field productivity and production efficiency.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||21|
Aardal, O., Paichard, Y., Brovoll, S.et al. 2013. Physical working principles of medical radar. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 60 (4): 1142-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23192469.
Antonellini, Marco and Aydin, Atilla. 1994. Effect of faulting on fluid flow in porous sandstones: petrophysical properties. AAPG Bulletin 76 (3): 355-377. https://doi.org/10.1306/BDFF90AA-1718-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
Antonellini, Marco and Aydin, Atilla. 1995. Effect of Faulting on Fluid Flow in Porous Sandstones: Geometry and Spatial Distribution. AAPG Bulletin 79 (5): 642-671. https://doi.org/10.1306/8D2B1B60-171E-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
Antonellini, Marco and Pollard, David D. 1995. Distinct element modeling of deformation bands in sandstone. Journal of Structural Geology 17 (8): 1165-1182. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(95)00001-T.
Baud, Patrick, Klein, Emmanuelle, and Wong, Teng-fong. 2004. Compaction localization in porous sandstones: spatial evolution of damage and acoustic emission activity. Journal of Structural Geology 26 (4): 603-624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2003.09.002.
Beasley, Patrick D. L.. 2008. Advances in Millimetre Wave FMCW Radar. Proc., MRRS-2008 Symposium Proceedings, Kiev, Ukraine, September 22-24. https://doi.org/10.1109/MMRS.2008.4669588.
Blanche, Jamie, Flynn, David, Lewis, Helenet al. 2018. Analysis of Sandstone Pore Space Fluid Saturation and Mineralogy Variation via Application of Monostatic K-Band Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave Radar. IEEE Access 6: 44376-44389. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2863024.
Buckman, James and Higgins, Sean. 2019. A Simple Effective Method for Three-Dimensional Modelling of Cementation, Fracturing and Dissolution of Carbonate Rocks: Illustrated through Oolitic Limestone. Geosciences 9 (6): 246. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences9060246.
Buckman, James O, Corbett, Patrick WM, and Mitchell, Lauren. 2016. Charge contrast imaging (CCI): revealing enhanced diagenetic features of a coquina limestone. Journal of Sedimentary Research 86 (6): 734-748. https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2016.20.
Buckman, Jim, Mahoney, Carol, März, Christianet al. 2017. Identifying biogenic silica: Mudrock micro-fabric explored through charge contrast imaging. American Mineralogist 102 (4): 833-844. https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2017-5797.
Galin, N., Worby, A., Massom, R.et al. 2008. 2 - 8 GHz FMCW Radar for Estimating Snow Depth on Antarctic Sea Ice. Proc., International Conference on Radar, Adelaide, Australia, 02 Sep- 05 Sep 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/RADAR.2008.4653931.
Galin, Natalia, Worby, Anthony, Markus, Thorstenet al. 2012. Validation of Airborne FMCW Radar Measurements of Snow Thickness Over Sea Ice in Antarctica. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 50 (1): 3-12. https://doi.org/10.1109/tgrs.2011.2159121.
Gubler, H. and Hiller, M. 1984. The use of microwave FMCW radar in snow and avalanche research. Cold Regions Science and Technology 9 (2): 109 - 119. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-232X(84)90003-X.
Hall, SA, Lenoir, Nicolas, Viggiani, Gioacchinoet al. 2010. Characterization of the Evolving Grain-Scale Structure in a Sand Deforming under Triaxial Compression. Advances in Computed Tomography for Geomaterials: GeoX 2010: 34-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118557723.ch4.
Holmgren, Jon, Sturm, Matthew, Yankielun, Norbertet al. 1998. Extensive measurements of snow depth using FM-CW radar Cold Regions Science and Technology 27 (1): 17-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-232X(97)00020-7.
Huang, Lingcao, Baud, Patrick, Cordonnier, Benoitet al. 2019. Synchrotron X-ray imaging in 4D: Multiscale failure and compaction localization in triaxially compressed porous limestone. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 528: 115831. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2019.115831.
Issen, K. A. and Rudnicki, J. W. 2000. Conditions for compaction bands in porous rock. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 105 (B9): 21529-21536. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000jb900185.
Kaminski, Piotr, Staszek, Kamil, Wincza, Krzysztofet al. 2014. K-band FMCW Radar Module with Interferometic Capability for Industrial Applications. Presented at the 15th International Radar Symposium (IRS). https://doi.org/10.1109/IRS.2014.6869237.
Koh, Gary, Lever, James H., Arcone, Steven A.et al. 2010. Autonomous FMCW Radar Survey of Antarctic Shear Zone. Proceedings of the XIII Internarional Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar: 1 - 5. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICGPR.2010.5550174.
Lenoir, Nicolas, Bornert, Michel, Desrues, Jacqueset al. 2007. Volumetric digital image correlation applied to X?ray microtomography images from triaxial compression tests on argillaceous rock. Strain 43 (3): 193-205. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-1305.2007.00348.x.
Li, Changzhi, Lubecke, Victor M., Boric-Lubecke, Olgaet al. 2013. A Review on Recent Advances in Doppler Radar Sensors for Noncontact Healthcare Monitoring. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 61 (5): 2046-2060. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2013.2256924.
Marshall, Hans-Peter and Koh, Gary. 2008. FMCW radars for snow research. Cold Regions Science and Technology 52 (2): 118-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2007.04.008.
Marshall, Hans-Peter, Schneebeli, Martin, and Koh, Gary. 2007. Snow stratigraphy measurements with high-frequency FMCW radar: Comparison with snow micro-penetrometer. Cold Regions Science and Technology 47 (1-2): 108-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2006.08.008.
Menéndez, Beatriz, Zhu, Wenlu, and Wong, Teng-Fong. 1996. Micromechanics of brittle faulting and cataclastic flow in Berea sandstone. Journal of structural geology 18 (1): 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(95)00076-P.
Olsson, William A. 1999. Theoretical and experimental investigation of compaction bands in porous rock. Journal of Geophysical Research 104 (B4): 7219 - 7228. https://doi.org/10.1029/1998jb900120.
Vinci, G., Lindner, S., Barbon, F.et al. 2012. 24 GHz Six-Port Medical Radar for Contactless Respiration Detection and Heartbeat Monitoring. Proc., 9th European Radar Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 31 Oct - 2 Nov. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6450726.
Yadav, Rekha, Dahiya, Pawan Kumar, and Mishra, Rajesh. 2016. A High Performance 76.5 GHz FMCW RADAR for Advanced Driving Assistance System. Proc., 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), Noida, India 383-388. https://doi.org/10.1109/SPIN.2016.7566724.