Carbon Capture and Sequestration: The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Efforts to Characterize Opportunities for Deep Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Resources
- John Litynski (NETL) | B.M. Brown (NETL) | D.M. Vikara (KeyLogic Systems) | R.D. Srivastava (KeyLogic Systems)
- Document ID
- Offshore Technology Conference
- Offshore Technology Conference, 2-5 May, Houston, Texas, USA
- Publication Date
- Document Type
- Conference Paper
- Houston, Texas
- 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.3.4 Integration of geomechanics in models, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 3 Production and Well Operations, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.10.1 CO2 Capture and Sequestration, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 4.6 Natural Gas, 7.2.1 Risk, Uncertainty and Risk Assessment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems
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The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency for the research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) of carbon sequestration technologies. This effort is being implemented through several activities, including applied research and development (R&D), demonstration projects, and technical support to loan guarantee and tax incentives programs. The sequestration program started in 1997 and has grown significantly. In Fiscal Year 2010, $145 million in federal funding was received to support carbon capture and storage (CCS) related R&D. The Sequestration Program also received $80 million in funding from the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to support the development of resources for geologic storage of CO2. The goal of the program is to develop a suite of technologies that can support the implementation of commercial CCS projects by 2020.
Part of the program funding is being used to assess the potential for storing CO2 in offshore geologic formations. This paper presents an overview of projects awarded to assess the potential for geologic storage in state and federal waters in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and in Texas and California state territorial waters, as well as research efforts DOE is supporting world-wide. These efforts are aimed at capacity assessments; monitoring and modeling of sub-seabed storage projects; characterization of projects that are drilling wells and conducting seismic surveys; and assessment of regulatory gaps relative to storing CO2 in offshore formations. The results are expected to provide a summary of basin-scale suitability and will identify and prioritize potential offshore CO2 geological storage opportunities.
Fossil fuels are projected to be the primary source of energy for the United States and most developed and developing countries over the next several decades, and their consumption is expected to increase. Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have risen significantly from preindustrial levels of 280 parts per million (ppm) to present levels of around 384 ppm (Tans, 2008). Evidence suggests that the observed rise in atmospheric CO2 levels is the result of expanded use of fossil fuels for energy. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is expected to rise due to the anticipated increase in fossil fuel usage unless major advances in energy management and production are made (Socolow et al., 2004; Greenblatt and Sarmiento, 2004). Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an emerging strategy for preventing the emission of anthropogenic CO2 into the atmosphere. The long-term storage of anthropogenic CO2 is a promising technology for slowing, and ultimately reversing, the build-up of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere (NETL, 2009).
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