Navigation in ice poses a number of hazards, which may have significant consequences if not addressed. Significant efforts are frequently made to ensure the ship is designed and constructed for the anticipated ice conditions, however, operational aspects play a crucial role in mitigating risks and avoiding hazards in ice transits. This paper outlines some of the operational situations that may occur during ice navigation and illustrates the potential risks, and explores some of the elements for the risk management necessary for safe navigation in ice. Further, the paper discusses the influence of the operations with a particular emphasis on how these can be applied to ice transit simulations, with an application case study used as an illustrative example to highlight these elements.
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