|Publisher||Society of Petroleum Engineers||Language||English|
|Content Type||Conference Paper|
|Title||Permeability Upscaling Techniques for Reservoir Simulation|
M. O. Salazar, U. Central de Venezuela, and J. R. Villa, PDVSA Intevep
Latin American & Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, 15-18 April 2007, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2007. Society of Petroleum Engineers
|6.5.3 Scaling Methods
6.8 Fundamental Research in Reservoir Description and Dynamics
6.5.4 Visualization Technologies
6.5.5 Evaluation of Uncertainties
6.5.1 Simulator Development
The reference fine scale model considered in this study is a conceptual fluvial reservoir based on the Stanford V model4. The reference fine scale isotropic and locally heterogeneous permeability distribution was upscaled to different upscaling ratios by means of analytical (static) and numerical single-phase (pressure solver, dynamic) techniques. Two-phase flow simulations were performed on the reference fine grid and upscaled models using a comercial black-oil simulator. Arithmetic, harmonic, and geometric averages were defined for static upscaling of the permeability distribution. The dynamic upscaling process considered one-phase and two-phase upscaling. One-phase upscaling considered upscaling of the permeability distribution and two-phase upscaling considered upscaling of the permeability distribution and relative permeability curves.
Flow simulation results for waterflooding in the coarse scale model indicated relevant discrepancies with the fine grid results. Compared to fine-scale, flow results of the single-phase upscaling process indicated that the coarsest upscaled models did not match the water breakthrough times, water cut values, or well pressures from the reference model. The finer upscaled models reproduced the reference results more accurately than the coarser models. The two-phase dynamic upscaling technique implemented in this work resulted in the best match with the flow simulation results of the fine grid model. Results show that the most accurate upscaling scheme should be defined using the two-phase dynamic upscaling technique on the model with the smallest upscaling ratio.
|File Size||3,191 KB|