|Publisher||Society of Petroleum Engineers||Language||English|
|Content Type||Conference Paper|
|Title||Design Considerations for an LNG Receiving Terminal|
|Authors||Al Kaplan, Cc Yang, Foster Wheeler|
SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 5-8 October 2003, Denver, Colorado
|Copyright||2003. Society of Petroleum Engineers|
LNG receiving or import terminals are not a new phenomenon, with over 40 in existence worldwide, the oldest being more than 30 years old. At present, there is renewed interest in LNG receiving terminals outside Japan, due to the increased demand for clean burning energy and an abundance of natural gas worldwide. Currently, there are at least 50 proposed new receiving terminals in various stages worldwide; more than 35 potential projects have been identified for the North American market alone. This paper will address the key drivers governing LNG receiving facility design and will then examine key design issues for each of the main elements os such terminals. This paper primarily addresses the issues surrounding onshore terminals, but also in specific areas highlights the differences between an onshore and offshore facility.
The cost for an LNG import facility varies, but can be US $ 400 million or more, and is dependent upon many factors. Nonetheless, it is a small component of the entire LNG value chain shown in Figure 1.
The major elements of an LNG import terminal and the range of costs for a 3 million tones per annum (MTPA) facility are shown in Figure 2.
The schedule for completion of an LNG terminal is approximately 48 months from the start of front-end engineering design (FEED), or 33-36 months from EPC contract award. The critical path will be through the LNG tanks, which will take 32-34 months to complete. In addition, permitting can add significantly to the total project duration.
LNG Receiving Facility Design
The key drivers that govern the design and cost of an LNG receiving facility are:
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