|Publisher||Society of Petroleum Engineers||Language||English|
|Content Type||Conference Paper|
|Title||CO2 EOR Scheduling by Analytical Model (CESAM)|
Mikhail Tanakov,(*) SPE, and Arafat Al Yafei, SPE, Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), UAE
Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, 11-14 November 2012, Abu Dhabi, UAE
2012. Society of Petroleum Engineers
|2.5.1 Global Climate Change/CO2 Capture and Management
This paper presents a new approach developed for high-level scoping analysis, forecasting and scheduling of CO2 EOR projects for multiple reservoirs and fields. The approach utilizes available reservoir simulation, analytical predictions and analog data on a full-field scale and approximates them with analytical functions. This allows for very fast forecasting of oil and CO2 production rates and determines the requirements for make-up CO2 under different potential development scenarios, including piloting phases. Built in MicrosoftTM Excel with VBA code and an advanced solver add-in, this scheduling tool enables the timely use of probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation for estimating the impact of uncertain input parameters on CO2 flood performance from multiple reservoirs. A numerical optimization algorithm searches for the best development schedule by optimizing the start-up times for a number of planned CO2 injection projects subject to allowable oil rate and CO2 supply constraints. Another optimization algorithm matches the estimated CO2 demand with supply from multiple natural and industrial sources and predicts the best time to commission CO2 capture facilities, thus maximizing CO2 utilization by EOR schemes rather than disposing it in depleted reservoirs or saline aquifers.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) applications was first pioneered in the US more than four decades ago (Jarrel 2002) and has been used with commercial success on a large scale (Oxy Permian 2012). Tertiary oil recovery projects can increase the recovery factors by 10 to 25 percent and already produced several billions of barrels in the Permian Basin alone. Recent studies indicate that this mature technology still offers significant potential for extracting additional billions of barrels of oil in other parts of North America (Mohan, et al. 2008; Clinton Climate Initiative 2012) and the world, particularly in the Middle East (Mutairi and Kokal 2011). North America became the de-facto world leader in this technology due to the readily available inexpensive, high quality, and large volumes of CO2 from natural sources. However, to repeat this success in regions with limited or non-existent natural sources, large quantities of anthropogenic (man-made) CO2 would be needed. Various anthropogenic sources worldwide have produced more than five billion metric tons of CO2 in 2011 alone (U.S. EIA 2012, Table 12.1), yet most of it was vented into the atmosphere.
A growing number of governments in the developed world now invest significantly in research, development and demonstration (RD&D) projects for carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS). The economic benefits of carbon sequestration, although hard to quantify, may provide both tangible (in a form of tax credits and penalties) and intangible (social responsibility and political gains) incentives for capturing and utilizing anthropogenic CO2, and it is the role of scientists and engineers to make these projects commercially successful.
Being a responsible member of the international community, the Emirate of Abu Dhabi is addressing the challenge posed by CO2 emissions by introducing cleaner energy sources and attempting to capture and sequester CO2 produced from various anthropogenic sources. To support these efforts, Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), responsible for developing Abu Dhabi’s hydrocarbon resources by maximizing their safe and sustainable recovery from reservoirs, took the initiative to assess the opportunities of CO2 flooding for EOR as well as sequestering it in target reservoirs.