Mohsen Saeed, SPE, Emad Roayaie, SPE, Mahmoud Reza Jazayeri, SPE, Mohammad
Sabor Malaki, SPE, Majid Minaie, SPE, Mohammad Ali Emadi, IOR Research
Institute, National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC)
SPE Middle East Health, Safety, Security, and Environment Conference and Exhibition,
2-4 April 2012,
Abu Dhabi, UAE
The world has been faced with the most serious environmental issues which is
the global warming of the earth and this is due to the accumulation of
greenhouse gases (GHG: H2O, CO2, N2O etc.) generated by human activities
(fossil fuel combustion).
Reducing man-made CO2 emission is a key element in mitigating greenhouse gas
emission specially CO2. Among the different solutions for CO2 emission
reduction such as energy management, use of renewable energies, forestation,
the technologies of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) into the geological
structures has high potential in mitigation of CO2 emissions from anthropogenic
In this paper, after a brief introduction to CCS-EOR technology, the overall
quantity of CO2 emission in Iran is introduced as a database. This involves
different acid gas sources in petroleum industry and energy section and their
Iran has many sour oil and gas reserves and Assalueh gas field is considered as
one of the highest priority sources of CO2 in NIOC in terms of both amounts of
emission and the possibility of CCS deployment. Carbon dioxide obtained from
sweetening of natural gas is considered as a major CO2 source because of its
low cost of capturing compare to the other sources.
According to this, assessment for a case study project is done in this field.
Selecting optimal structures that match the CO2 underground storage criteria
involve many factors like geological, geothermal and hydrodynamic conditions,
emission source location, economic, legal issues etc.
Based on theses parameters, this paper investigates possibility of CO2
injection in 24 different geological structures in south of Iran
Worldwide, in 2009, 43% of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion were produced
from coal, 37% from oil and 20% from gas. Growth of these fuels in 2009 was
quite different, reflecting varying trends that are expected to continue in the
Currently, coal is filling much of the growing energy demand of developing
countries, where energy-intensive industrial production is growing rapidly and
large coal reserves exist with limited reserves of other energy sources. Energy
Technology Perspectives (ETP 2010) shows that intensified use of coal would
substantially increase CO2emissions unless there was a very widespread
deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS).
Due to the fact that Iran is one of the biggest producers of oil and gas in the
world, so that the most of CO2 produced is related to these sources of energy
which are used in diverse industrial section such as power plants. According to
statistical reports, CO2 emissions have increased in two past decades in Iran.
Nonetheless, it has a little share of CO2 emission globally (1.7 %) and has a
good enthusiasm to decrease emissions. For receiving this purpose, one of the
best solutions is CCS.
CCS involves three main stages: Capture, transport and storage. CO2 is captured
at large, fixed sources of emission, then concentrated and transported to a
suitable storage zone.
The technology for CO2 storage has been in use by oil and gas industry in
several locations since 1970s, and worldwide experiences with CO2 storage
projects prove that CO2 can be stored safely without leakages.
However if CO2 is used simultaneously for increasing recovery factor and
storage in oil and gas reservoirs, it would be the best option. CO2
miscible/immiscible injection can improve oil recovery because it can reduce
the fluid and rock interfacial tension (IFT), reduction in oil viscosity and
swelling of oil and finally Pressure maintenance.