|Content Type||Conference Paper|
|Title||MATERIALS OPTIMIZATION FOR CO<sub>2</sub> TRANSPORTATION IN CO<sub>2</sub> CAPTURE AND STORAGE|
|Authors||Bijan Kermani, KeyTech; Federico Daguerre, Tenaris Group|
|Source||CORROSION 2010, March 14 - 18, 2010 , San Antonio, TX|
|Copyright||2010. NACE International|
|Keywords||Climate change, CO<sub>2</sub> capture and storage, CO<sub>2</sub> corrosion, CO<sub>2</sub> sequestration, greenhouse gasses, materials optimization.|
With the growing environmental constraints, global warming and public awareness, there is an increasing incentive to reduce carbon emissions. One approach to achieving this is through CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Once captured and compressed, CO2 must be transported to a long term storage site. In principle, transmission may be accomplished by pipelines, tankers, trains, trucks, compressed gas cylinders, as CO2 hydrate, or as solid dry ice. However, only pipeline and tanker transmission are reasonable options for the large quantities of CO2 associated with power stations, other industry activities or hydrocarbon production.
This paper combines current status of materials and corrosion options for CO2 transmission, outlining any technology gaps that may exist. In addition, a simple guideline is presented enabling materials optimization for CO2 transmission in CCS.
For the foreseeable future, fossil fuels will continue to be the dominant source of primary energy production globally1‐5. Invariably, the use of such carbon based fuels leads to the production of greenhouse gases, principally CO2. To reduce the impact of these gases on the global climate, it is necessary to lessen the emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. This can be achieved through a combination of mitigation options. No mitigation option alone will achieve the desired reduction targets.
Mitigation options that are included in the portfolio of alternatives can include improved energy efficiency, introduction of renewable energy, nuclear power and CO2 capture and storage (CCS)1‐5.
CO2 is usually captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical or physical processes. Capture is the most costly stage of the CCS chain and substantial research efforts are being undertaken to reduce its energy penalty and associated costs. Once captured and compressed, CO2 must be transported to a long term storage site for sequestration. CO2 sequestration is a process by which CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored indefinitely. These invariably involve transportation of CO2 to sites for sequestration. Many oil and gas operators are looking at materials optimization for such applications.
In principle, transmission may be accomplished by pipelines, tankers, trains, trucks, compressed gas cylinders, as CO2 hydrate, or as solid dry ice. However, only pipeline and tanker transmission are reasonable options for the large quantities of CO2 associated with power stations, other industry activities or hydrocarbon production. Apart from political and environmental incentives, CO2 sequestration is being considered in tertiary recovery for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to produce residual hydrocarbon.
It is perceivable to presume that eventually CO2 pipeline grids, similar to those used for natural gas transmission, would be built, if CCS became widely used. The mounting interest in CCS has led operators to explore potential materials options for CO2 transmission. Materials optimization is therefore, an important theme in CO2 transportation and is the subject of the present paper.
In addressing the topic, brief description of methods used to capture and manners of storage are included in the paper. In addition, a section has been assigned to describing properties of CO2.
|File Size||1033 KB||14|